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Human beta-cell glucokinase. Dual role of Ser-151 in catalysis and hexose affinity.

Glucokinase is distinguished from yeast hexokinase and low Km mammalian hexokinases by its low affinity for glucose and its cooperative behavior, even though glucose binding residues and catalytic residues are highly conserved in all of these forms of hexokinase. The roles of Ser-151 and Asn-166 as determinants of hexose affinity and cooperative behavior of human glucokinase have been evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis, expression and purification of the wild-type and mutant enzymes, and steady-state kinetic analysis. Mutation of Asn-166 to arginine increased apparent affinity for both glucose and ATP by a factor of 3. Mutation of Ser-151 to cysteine, alanine, or glycine lowered the Km for glucose by factors of 2-, 26-, and 40-fold, respectively, decreased Vmax, abolished cooperativity for glucose, and also decreased Km for mannose and fructose. The Ser-151 mutants had hexose Km values similar to those of yeast hexokinase, hexokinase I, and the recombinantly expressed COOH-terminal half of hexokinase I. However, the Ki values for the competitive inhibitors, N-acetylglucosamine and glucose-6-P, were unchanged, suggesting that Ser-151 is not important for inhibitor binding. Mutation of Ser-151 also increased the Km for ATP about 5-fold and abolished the enzyme's low ATPase activity, which indicates it is essential for ATP hydrolysis. The substrate-induced change in intrinsic fluorescence of S151A occurred at a much lower glucose concentration than that for wild-type enzyme. The results implicate a dual role for Ser-151 as a determinant of hexose affinity and catalysis, exclusive of the glucose-induced conformational change, and suggest that the low hexose affinity of glucokinase is dependent on interaction of Ser-151 with other regions of the protein.[1]

References

  1. Human beta-cell glucokinase. Dual role of Ser-151 in catalysis and hexose affinity. Xu, L.Z., Harrison, R.W., Weber, I.T., Pilkis, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
 
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