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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Estrogen regulation of noradrenergic signaling in the hypothalamus.

Hypothalamic circuits utilizing the monoamine neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) may be key elements upon which the ovarian steroids estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) act to regulate female reproductive behavior. Recent studies have focused on the modulation of hypothalamic NE release by E2 and P treatments that facilitate sexual behavior. Brain microdialysis studies suggest that oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to enhance lordosis when infused into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of E2 + P-primed females, modulates NE release in the VMH. Systemic administration of oxytocin reliably enhances extracellular NE levels in the VMH of animals primed with moderate doses of both E2 and P. Thus, ovarian steroids may facilitate female sexual behavior in part by promoting oxytocin-induced NE release in the VMH. Studies examining the release of 3H-NE from superfused hypothalamic slices indicate that estrogen treatment also facilitates NE neurotransmission by attenuating alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of NE release. Hypothalamic alpha 2-adrenergic receptors are not downregulated by estrogen, suggesting that brain adrenoceptor function can be modulated by E2 independent of changes in receptor density. A model is proposed wherein E2 and P enhance hypothalamic NE release, leading to increased excitability of VMH neuronal activity and the expression of lordosis behavior.[1]


  1. Estrogen regulation of noradrenergic signaling in the hypothalamus. Etgen, A.M., Karkanias, G.B. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
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