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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Evaluation of ventricular septal defect by transesophageal echocardiography: intraoperative assessment.

The miniaturization of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probes, together with the development of the capability for biplane imaging from the esophagus, have increased the use of TEE in pediatric cardiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the TEE findings in patients with ventricular septal defect ( VSD) before and after closure primarily by means of pediatric biplane probes. This study group included 69 patients who underwent VSD closure as an isolated repair or as a part of a definitive repair of a more complicated lesion. Ages ranged from 6 days to 15.6 years (median 1 year, 4 months), with operative weights ranging from 2.9 kg to 68 kg (median 10 kg). Preoperative and follow-up transthoracic echocardiograms (TTE) were also performed. Intraoperative TEE was performed without complication in all 69 patients. Preoperative results: (1) anatomic findings: Two muscular VSDs were detected by matrix TEE but could not be observed by TTE. A patient with preoperative TTE diagnosis of an ostium primum ASD was found to have atrioventricular (AV) canal by TEE. In three of six AV canal type VSDs, both TTE and TEE demonstrated left ventricular-right atrial shunting (2) aortic regurgitation associated with VSD: Aortic regurgitation as a result of right coronary cusp prolapse was detected in one of five supracristal VSDs in which the biplane or matrix TEE was used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


  1. Evaluation of ventricular septal defect by transesophageal echocardiography: intraoperative assessment. Tee, S.D., Shiota, T., Weintraub, R., Teien, D.E., Deng, Y.B., Sahn, D.J., Omoto, R., Kyo, S. Am. Heart J. (1994) [Pubmed]
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