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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cell cycle- regulated nuclear localization of MCM2 and MCM3, which are required for the initiation of DNA synthesis at chromosomal replication origins in yeast.

MCM2 and MCM3 are two genetically interacting and structurally related proteins essential for growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutants defective in these proteins affect the stability of minichromosomes in general, but the severity of the defect is dependent on the autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) that drives the replication of that plasmid. In this paper we show by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis that the initiation of DNA synthesis at chromosomal replication origins is also reduced in frequency in these mutants. We show further that the nuclear and subnuclear localizations of the MCM2 and MCM3 proteins are temporally regulated with respect to the cell cycle. These proteins enter the nucleus at the end of mitosis, persist there throughout G1 phase, and disappear from it at the beginning of S phase. Once inside the nucleus, a fraction of the MCM2 and MCM3 proteins becomes tightly associated with DNA. The association of MCM2 and MCM3 with chromatin presumably leads to the initiation of DNA synthesis, and their subsequent disappearance from the nucleus presumably prevents reinitiation of DNA synthesis at replication origins. This temporally and spatially restricted localization of MCM2 and MCM3 in the nucleus may serve to ensure that DNA replication occurs once and only once per cell cycle.[1]


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