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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The choroidal blood flow response after flicker stimulation in chicks.

Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) can be prevented by exposing the animal to stroboscopic illumination (10 Hz). Flicker illumination is known to stimulate the release of dopamine (DA) from the retina. We hypothesize that DA was released and diffused into the choroid. To prove this hypothesis, we decided to undertake an investigation in chicks and measure choroidal blood flow (ChBF) during stimulation of the ocular fundus with diffuse flicker. White Leghorn chicks (2 weeks old) were used for this study. Different flash stimulations (5 Hz approximately 50 Hz) were given for 3 minutes, then ChBF was recorded with the PeriFlux flowmeter simultaneously and continuously for 5 minutes. Some birds are recorded up to 120 minutes to find out any late-onset effect. The ChBF was increased after flicker stimulation. The difference was statistically significant in 10 Hz, 20 Hz, and 30 Hz. The ChBF can maintain 20% higher for 60 minutes. Therefore, flicker illumination preventing FDM may be induced by the hyperactivity of ganglion cells, then stimulates the release of DA from the retina and suppresses the development of myopia.[1]


  1. The choroidal blood flow response after flicker stimulation in chicks. Shih, Y.F., Lin, S.Y., Huang, J.K., Jian, S.W., Lin, L.L., Hung, P.T. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (1997) [Pubmed]
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