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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Atrial natriuretic peptide-C receptor and membrane signalling in hypertension.

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates a variety of physiological parameters, including the blood pressure and intravascular volume, by interacting with its receptors present on the plasma membrane. ANP receptors are of three subtypes: ANP-A, -B and -C receptors. ANP-A and ANP-B receptors are guanylyl cyclase receptors, whereas ANP-C receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase inhibition or phospholipase C activation through inhibitory guanine nucleotide-regulating protein. Unlike other G protein-coupled receptors, ANP-C receptors have a single transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic domain of 37 amino acids, the cytoplasmic domain has a structural specificity like those of other single-transmembrane-domain receptors and 37 amino-acid cytoplasmic domain peptide is able to exert is inhibitory effect on adenylyl cyclase. The activation of ANP-C receptor by C-ANP(4-23) (a ring-deleted peptide of ANP) and C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits the mitogen-activated protein kinase activity stimulated by endothelin-3, platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol-12 myristate 13-acetate. C-ANP also inhibits mitogen-induced stimulation of DNA synthesis, indicating that the ANP-C receptor plays a role in cell proliferation through an inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase and suggesting that the ANP-C receptor might also be coupled to other signal transduction mechanism(s) or that there might be an interaction of the ANP-C receptor with some other signalling pathways. ANP receptor binding is decreased in most organs in hypertensive subjects and hypertensive animals. This decrease is consistent with there being fewer guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors in the kidney and vasculature and selective inhibition of the ANP-C receptor in the thymus and spleen. Platelet ANP-C receptors are decreased in number in hypertensive patients and spontaneously hypertensive rats. ANP-A, -B and -C receptors are decreased in number in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-treated kidneys and vasculature; however, the responsiveness of adenylyl cyclase to ANP is augmented in the vasculature and heart and is attenuated completely in platelets. These alterations in ANP receptor subtypes may be related to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Several hormones such as angiotensin II, ANP and catecholamines, the levels of which are increased in hypertension, downregulate or upregulate ANP-C receptors and ANP-C receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. It can be suggested that the antihypertensive action of several types of drugs such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists and beta2-adrenergic antagonists may partly be attributed to their ability to modulate the expression and function of the ANP-C receptor.[1]


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