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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effector protease receptor 1 mediates the mitogenic activity of factor Xa for vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo.

The binding of 125I-factor Xa to human aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) monolayers was studied. At 4 degreesC, 125I-factor Xa bound to a single class of binding sites with a dissociation constant value of 3.6+/-0.7 nM and a binding site density of 11,720+/-1,240 sites/cell (n = 9). 125I-factor Xa binding was not affected by factor X, thrombin, or by DX9065, a direct inhibitor of factor Xa, but was inhibited by factor Xa (IC50 = 5.4+/-0.2 nM; n = 9) and by antibodies specific for the effector cell protease receptor 1 ( EPR-1), a well-known receptor of factor Xa on various cell types. A factor X peptide duplicating the inter-EGF sequence Leu83-Leu88-(Gly) blocked the binding of 125I-factor Xa to these cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 110+/-21 nM). Factor Xa increased phosphoinositide turnover in SMCs and when added to SMCs in culture was a potent mitogen. These effects were inhibited by DX9065 and by antibodies directed against EPR-1 and PDGF. Increased expression of EPR-1 was identified immunohistochemically on SMCs growing in culture and in SMCs from the rabbit carotid artery after vascular injury. When applied locally to air-injured rabbit carotid arteries, antibodies directed against EPR-1 (100 mug/ artery) strongly reduced myointimal proliferation 14 d after vascular injury (65-71% inhibition, P < 0.01). DX9065 (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous) inhibited myointimal proliferation significantly (43% inhibition, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that SMCs express functional high affinity receptors for factor Xa related to EPR-1, which may be of importance in the regulation of homeostasis of the vascular wall and after vascular injury.[1]


  1. Effector protease receptor 1 mediates the mitogenic activity of factor Xa for vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. Herbert, J., Bono, F., Herault, J., Avril, C., Dol, F., Mares, A., Schaeffer, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
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