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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Establishment of a Salmonella tester strain highly sensitive to mutagenic heterocyclic amines.

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that are present in cooked foods require metabolic activation to exert their genotoxicity. They undergo activation via N-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), followed by O-esterification by O-acetyltransferase (OAT). To develop a Salmonella tester strain that is highly sensitive to mutagenic HCAs, we introduced a coexpression plasmid (p1A2OR) carrying human CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP reductase cDNAs and an expression plasmid (pOAT) carrying Salmonella OAT to Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 to yield a TA1538/ ARO strain. The TA1538/ ARO strain was proven to express the enzymes, as indicated by high activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and isoniazid N-acetylase. The TA1538/ ARO strain exhibited very high sensitivity to mutagenic HCAs 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and a somewhat higher sensitivity to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine compared with the parent Ames tester strain TA1538. The minimum concentrations of 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, IQ, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine giving positive results were defined by evidence that the number of colonies increased in a dose-dependent manner and reached a number two times higher than that obtained by vehicle alone as a control in the TA1538/ ARO strain at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, and 1000 pM, respectively. When the membrane and cytosol fractions prepared from TA1538/ ARO were added to a mixture containing the parental TA1538, the sensitivity of TA1538 to IQ was much lower than that seen with TA1538/ ARO. These results indicate that the intracellular expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes makes the established strain of Salmonella highly sensitive to mutagenic HCAs.[1]


  1. Establishment of a Salmonella tester strain highly sensitive to mutagenic heterocyclic amines. Suzuki, A., Kushida, H., Iwata, H., Watanabe, M., Nohmi, T., Fujita, K., Gonzalez, F.J., Kamataki, T. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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