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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Synergistic antitumor effect of the activated PPARgamma and retinoid receptors on human osteosarcoma.

PURPOSE: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. The long-term survival of osteosarcoma patients hinges on our ability to prevent and/or treat recurrent and metastatic lesions. Here, we investigated the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and retinoid receptors as a means of differentiation therapy for human osteosarcoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the endogenous expression of PPARgamma and retinoid receptors in a panel of osteosarcoma cells. Ligands or adenovirus-mediated overexpression of these receptors were tested to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. Osteosarcoma cells overexpressing the receptors were introduced into an orthotopic tumor model. The effect of these ligands on osteoblastic differentiation was further investigated. RESULTS: Endogenous expression of PPARgamma and isotypes of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) is detected in most osteosarcoma cells. Troglitazone, 9-cis retinoic acid (RA), and all-trans RA, as well as overexpression of PPARgamma, RARalpha, and RXRalpha, inhibit osteosarcoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. A synergistic inhibitory effect on osteosarcoma cell proliferation is observed between troglitazone and retinoids, as well as with the overexpression pairs of PPARgamma/RARalpha, or PPARgamma/RXRalpha. Overexpression of PPARgamma, RARalpha, RXRalpha, or in combinations inhibits osteosarcoma tumor growth and cell proliferation in vivo. Retinoids (and to a lesser extent, troglitazone) are shown to promote osteogenic differentiation of osteosarcoma cells and mesenchymal stem cells. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of PPARgamma, RARalpha, and RXRalpha may act synergistically on inhibiting osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth, which is at least partially mediated by promoting osteoblastic differentiation of osteosarcoma cells.[1]


  1. Synergistic antitumor effect of the activated PPARgamma and retinoid receptors on human osteosarcoma. He, B.C., Chen, L., Zuo, G.W., Zhang, W., Bi, Y., Huang, J., Wang, Y., Jiang, W., Luo, Q., Shi, Q., Zhang, B.Q., Liu, B., Lei, X., Luo, J., Luo, X., Wagner, E.R., Kim, S.H., He, C.J., Hu, Y., Shen, J., Zhou, Q., Rastegar, F., Deng, Z.L., Luu, H.H., He, T.C., Haydon, R.C. Clin. Cancer Res. (2010) [Pubmed]
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