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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Helen E. Gruber

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

Carolinas Medical Center


North Carolina 28232



Name/email consistency: high



  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28232, USA. 1997 - 2005


  1. Vertebral endplate architecture and vascularization: application of micro-computerized tomography, a vascular tracer, and immunocytochemistry in analyses of disc degeneration in the aging sand rat. Gruber, H.E., Ashraf, N., Kilburn, J., Williams, C., Norton, H.J., Gordon, B.E., Hanley, E.N. Spine (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Cell-based tissue engineering for the intervertebral disc: in vitro studies of human disc cell gene expression and matrix production within selected cell carriers. Gruber, H.E., Leslie, K., Ingram, J., Norton, H.J., Hanley, E.N. Spine. J (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Alterations in growth plate and articular cartilage morphology are associated with reduced SOX9 localization in the magnesium-deficient rat. Gruber, H.E., Ingram, J., Norton, H.J., Wei, L.Y., Frausto, A., Mills, B.G., Rude, R.K. Biotech. Histochem (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Recent advances in disc cell biology. Gruber, H.E., Hanley, E.N. Spine (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Magnesium deficiency: effect on bone mineral density in the mouse appendicular skeleton. Gruber, H.E., Rude, R.K., Wei, L., Frausto, A., Mills, B.G., Norton, H.J. BMC. Musculoskelet. Disord (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Subchondral bone resorption in temporomandibular joint disorders. Gruber, H.E., Gregg, J. Cells. Tissues. Organs. (Print) (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell shape and gene expression in human intervertebral disc cells: in vitro tissue engineering studies. Gruber, H.E., Ingram, J.A., Leslie, K., Norton, H.J., Hanley, E.N. Biotech. Histochem (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Alterations in osteoclast morphology following osteoprotegerin administration in the magnesium-deficient mouse. Gruber, H.E., Rude, R.K. Biotech. Histochem (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The sand rat model for disc degeneration: radiologic characterization of age-related changes: cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Gruber, H.E., Johnson, T., Norton, H.J., Hanley, E.N. Spine (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Observations on morphologic changes in the aging and degenerating human disc: secondary collagen alterations. Gruber, H.E., Hanley, E.N. BMC. Musculoskelet. Disord (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Ultrastructure of the human intervertebral disc during aging and degeneration: comparison of surgical and control specimens. Gruber, H.E., Hanley, E.N. Spine (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Tenascin in the human intervertebral disc: alterations with aging and disc degeneration. Gruber, H.E., Ingram, J.A., Hanley, E.N. Biotech. Histochem (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. An improved staining method for intervertebral disc tissue. Gruber, H.E., Ingram, J., Hanley, E.N. Biotech. Histochem (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Autologous intervertebral disc cell implantation: a model using Psammomys obesus, the sand rat. Gruber, H.E., Johnson, T.L., Leslie, K., Ingram, J.A., Martin, D., Hoelscher, G., Banks, D., Phieffer, L., Coldham, G., Hanley, E.N. Spine (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Alterations in osteoclast morphology following long-term 17beta-estradiol administration in the mouse. Gruber, H.E., Puzanov, I.J., Bennett, M., Kumar, V., Gordon, B. BMC Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Morphologic and molecular evidence for gap junctions and connexin 43 and 45 expression in annulus fibrosus cells from the human intervertebral disc. Gruber, H.E., Ma, D., Hanley, E.N., Ingram, J., Yamaguchi, D.T. J. Orthop. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Optimization of 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester for labeling human intervertebral disc cells in vitro. Gruber, H.E., Leslie, K.P., Ingram, J.A., Hanley, E.N. Biotech. Histochem (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Human disc cells in monolayer vs 3D culture: cell shape, division and matrix formation. Gruber, H.E., Hanley, E.N. BMC. Musculoskelet. Disord (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of apoptotic cells in vitro: a practical standardized experimental protocol using human fibroblasts for initial laboratory studies. Gruber, H.E., Coleman, S.S., Stasky, A.A., Hoelscher, G.L., Desai, B.J. Biotech. Histochem (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. In vivo morphologic changes in the rat osteoclast induced by gallium nitrate: the result of toxicity or other effects?. Gruber, H.E., Norton, H.J., Singer, F.R. Miner. Electrolyte. Metab (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Adequate dietary calcium mitigates osteopenia induced by chronic lead exposure in adult rats. Gruber, H.E., Ding, Y., Stasky, A.A., Meyer, M., Pandian, M.R., Pandian, D., Vaziri, N.D., Grigsby, J., Gonick, H.C. Miner. Electrolyte. Metab (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Analysis of aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc. Comparison of surgical specimens with normal controls. Gruber, H.E., Hanley, E.N. Spine (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Human intervertebral disc cells from the annulus: three-dimensional culture in agarose or alginate and responsiveness to TGF-beta1. Gruber, H.E., Fisher, E.C., Desai, B., Stasky, A.A., Hoelscher, G., Hanley, E.N. Exp. Cell Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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