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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Plasminogen activator in chick embryo muscle cells: induction of enzyme by RSV, PMA and retinoic acid.

To explore the generality of the effects of sarcoma viruses, tumor-promoting phorbol esters and retinoic acid, we have studied plasminogen activator production in differentiating chick myogenic cultures. Although slightly higher than in chick fibroblast cultures, the level of spontaneously synthesized enzyme is low; it reaches a peak shortly after maximum cell fusion has been completed and then declines. Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) transformation of differentiating myotubes was accomplished by infecting myoblasts with a temperature-sensitive mutant, maintaining cultures at the nonpermissive temperature until completion of fusion and shifting to permissive temperatures at selected times thereafter. RSV transformation, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and retinoic acid all induced high levels of plasminogen activator production by differentiating myotubes in the absence of DNA synthesis. In comparison with fibroblasts, virus-induced enzyme synthesis by myogenic cultures proceeded more slowly but ultimately reached comparably high levels. Whereas cAMP strongly repressed RSV- and PMA-induced plasminogen activator production by chick fibroblasts, it weakly stimulated enzyme synthesis by myotubes. This suggests that enzyme induction by RSV and PMA is not mediated primarily through effects on cAMP metabolism.[1]


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