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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Symptoms and social adjustment of schizophrenic patients as evaluated by family members.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationship between family expressed emotion (EE) and family evaluation for symptoms and social adjustment of schizophrenic patients. Chronic schizophrenic outpatients in offshore islands under stationary therapeutic conditions were studied. For evaluation, the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) for EE and the Katz Adjustment Scale (KAS) for family evaluation of patients were used. EE level was high among relatives who thought the patient was belligerent, negativistic, unstable or helpless. High-EE relatives tended to evaluate their patients' performance of social activities rather low and showed strong dissatisfaction with the patient's leisure activities. Moreover, a high emotional overinvolvement (EOI) value is more common in Japan than in other countries. A subgroup of the FMSS-EOI, the emotional display, was seen where many mothers began to cry while speaking.[1]


  1. Symptoms and social adjustment of schizophrenic patients as evaluated by family members. Otsuka, T., Nakane, Y., Ohta, Y. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1994) [Pubmed]
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