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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
Article

Chordoma: Histology

 
 
  • Nuclear pleomorphism was detected in 26 of 65 SBCs and 24 of 29 NSBCs. [1]
  • Intralesional fibrous septae were observed in 79 of 122 chordomas. [2]
  • Necrosis was noted in 35/65 SBCs and 26/29 NSBCs. [1]
  • Poorly differentiated chordoma samples from 4 pediatric patients (age range: 22 months to 11 years) displayed “mitotically active epithelioid cells with round-to-ovoid, moderately pleomorphic nuclei, and prominent nucleoli.” [3]
  • Poorly differentiated chordoma samples from 4 pediatric patients (age range: 22 months to 11 years) displayed foci of necrosis, focal cytoplasmic vacuoles, and diffuse cytoplasmic pankeratin reactivity. [3]
  • Among 4 poorly differentiated chordoma samples from pediatric patients (age range: 22 months to 11 years), 1 sample contained cells arranged in sheets or cords within a myxoid stroma. [3]
  • Among 4 poorly differentiated chordoma samples from pediatric patients (age range: 22 months to 11 years), 3 samples displayed cells with “ill-defined cytoplasmic borders, irregular nuclear membranes, and foci of hyalinized stroma.” Some of these cells also showed spindle cell morphology. The samples were further characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells. [3]
  • Typical chordoma samples from 10 patients (age range: 11 to 77 years) showed no evidence of mitotic activity or necrosis. Tumor cells were vacuolated and arranged singly and in cords in a myxoid stroma. [3]
  • Observation of 16 chordoma samples found cells with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolization, a mucous background, prominent cord-like structures in the myxoid matrix, and the presence of physaliphorous cells. [4]
  • Microscopic analysis on 35 chordoma samples from 28 patients found mostly epithelial-like cells with varying degrees of vacuolization in a myxoid background. [5]
  • Among 28 tumor samples from 19 patients with skull base chordoma, all cases displayed cords and islands of variable-sized cells distributed in a myxoid matrix upon microscopic analysis. Many tumor cells exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles characteristic of physaliferous cells. [6]
  • Microscopic analysis on 6 samples of mediastinal chordoma found 4 (66.7%) as classic type, 1 (16.7%) as chondroid type, and 1 (16.7%) as sarcomatoid type. [7]
  • Microscopic analysis on 4 classic type mediastinal chordoma samples found tumors with prominent lobular growth patterns composed of cords and strands of large neoplastic cells. The tumor cells had abundant cytoplasm and both small and large hyperchromatic nuclei. Some stellate cells were seen embedded within a basophilic mucoid stroma. In addition, physaliphorous cells with prominent, vacuolated cytoplasm were also seen. [7]
  • Microscopic analysis on 1 chondroid type mediastinal chordoma sample found all the features of classic chordoma but also saw areas where tumor cells appeared to merge with an immature chondroid matrix. [7]
  • Microscopic analysis on 1 sarcomatoid type mediastinal chordoma sample found areas within the tumor that displayed sheets and fascicles of small, hyperchromatic spindle cells within a myxoid stroma. Areas containing an abundance of spindle cells demonstrated high mitotic activity and large foci of necrosis. [7]
  • Microscopic analysis on 8 sacral chordoma samples found tumors with a lobular structure containing large, pale physaliphorous cells within a mucinous matrix. The cytoplasm of the tumor cells contained glycogen vacuoles. [8]
  • Electron microscopic analysis on 3 recurrent samples of classic chordoma found abundant rough endoplasmic reticula forming dilated cisternae. In addition, inspection revealed the presence of intracellular lumina with microvilli, large glycogen deposits, and “an abundance of intermediate filaments forming both a diffuse meshwork and tonofilament-like bundles ending in well-developed desmosomes.” [9]
  • Microscopic analysis on 4 chordoma samples found tumors with cells arranged in cords, trabeculae, syncytia, and stellate-like sheets as single cells, cell-in-cells, and pearls. Cells were hypercellular, multinucleated, and contained abundant, lacy, multi-vacuolated cytoplasm. [10]
  • A comparison of 26 chordoma samples with 31 chondrosarcoma samples led members of the Cancer Research Campaign Bone Tumour Panel to agree on 3 histological features as distinguishing chordomas from other related bone tumors: physaliphorous cells, cells arranged in rows, and absence of chondroid matrix. [11]
  • Microscopic analysis of 3 human chordoma samples found tumors with cords, lobules, and clusters of cells embedded in a mucinous matrix. Neoplastic cells were heterogeneous and included the presence of some physaliphorous cells bearing large vacuoles that sometimes contained glycogen. Most tumor cells also contained a novel complex consisting of a tight association between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. [12]
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References

  1. Skull base and nonskull base chordomas: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study with special reference to nuclear pleomorphism and proliferative ability. Naka, T., Boltze, C., Samii, A., Herold, C., Ostertag, H., Iwamoto, Y., Oda, Y., Tsuneyoshi, M., Kuester, D., Roessner, A. Cancer. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Histogenesis of intralesional fibrous septum in chordoma. Naka, T., Boltze, C., Kuester, D., Samii, A., Herold, C., Ostertag, H., Iwamoto, Y., Odae, Y., Tsuneyoshi, M., Roessner, A. Pathol. Res. Pract. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression in poorly differentiated chordomas. Mobley, B.C., McKenney, J.K., Bangs, C.D., Callahan, K., Yeom, K.W., Schneppenheim, R., Hayden, M.G., Cherry, A.M., Gokden, M., Edwards, M.S., Fisher, P.G., Vogel, H. Acta. Neuropathol. (2010) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of cell adhesion molecules in chordomas: an immunohistochemical study of 16 cases. Horiguchi, H., Sano, T., Qian, Z.R., Hirokawa, M., Kagawa, N., Yamaguchi, T., Hirose, T., Nagahiro, S. Acta. Neuropathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Keratin subsets and monoclonal antibody HBME-1 in chordoma: immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between tumors simulating chordoma. O'Hara, B.J., Paetau, A., Miettinen, M. Hum. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Skull base chordomas: correlation of tumour doubling time with age, mitosis and Ki67 proliferation index. Holton, J.L., Steel, T., Luxsuwong, M., Crockard, H.A., Revesz, T. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Chordomas of the mediastinum: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of six cases presenting as posterior mediastinal masses. Suster, S., Moran, C.A. Hum. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Clonal chromosome aberrations in three sacral chordomas. Mertens, F., Kreicbergs, A., Rydholm, A., Willén, H., Carlén, B., Mitelman, F., Mandahl, N. Cancer. Genet. Cytogenet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of different cytokeratin subclasses in human chordoma. Heikinheimo, K., Persson, S., Kindblom, L.G., Morgan, P.R., Virtanen, I. J. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Chordoma: cytologic and immunocytochemical study of four cases. Kontozoglou, T., Qizilbash, A.H., Sianos, J., Stead, R. Diagn. Cytopathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. A study of histological features distinguishing chordoma from chondrosarcoma. Byers, P.D. Br. J. Cancer. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Ultrastructure of human chordoma. Erlandson, R.A., Tandler, B., Lieberman, P.H., Higinbotham, N.L. Cancer. Res. (1968) [Pubmed]
 
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