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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Echium rauwolfii and Echium horridum (Boraginaceae).

Echimidine was isolated from Echium rauwolfii and Echium horridum and identified by MS, 1H- and 13C NMR as a major alkaloid. In addition, structures of 12 minor alkaloids were inferred from GLC and GLC-MS analyses: 7-angeloylretronecine, 7-tigloylretronecine, lycopsamine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, uplandicine, 7-angeloyllycopsamine, 7-tigloyllycopsamine, tigloyl isomer of echimidine, 7-angeloyl-9-(2-methylbutyryl)retronecine, 7-tigloyl-9-(2-methylbutyryl)retronecine, 7-angeloyl-9-(2,3-dihydroxybutyryl)retronecine, and 7-tigloyl-9-(2,3-dihydroxybutyryl)retronecine. Both species had similar alkaloid profiles. Alkaloid extracts exhibited antibacterial effects with a MIC of 1.7 mg/ml in E. coli. Microscopic examination of E. coli treated with different subtoxic alkaloid concentrations (13-52 micrograms/ml) revealed extensive filamentation.[1]


  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Echium rauwolfii and Echium horridum (Boraginaceae). el-Shazly, A., Abdel-All, M., Tei, A., Wink, M. Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
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