The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interaction of endogenous compounds in human and rat urine with P-glycoprotein.

The effect of hydrophobic extracts of human and rat urine on in-vitro P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function was examined, in terms of intra-, inter-individual variations, and physiological states. Six urine samples out of 7, obtained from one male subject on different days, suppressed P-gp function with different potencies. Similarly, 11 samples out of 15 different individuals (8 males and 7 females) inhibited P-gp function. Among them, urine from one female, obtained 1 month after delivery, showed a potent inhibitory effect. Another urine from a pregnant female, obtained 1 week before delivery, showed further potent inhibition on P-gp function. In addition, urine from normal rats strongly inhibited P-gp function at much lower concentrations than human urine, and the inhibitory potencies varied in diseased states; control (without urine extract)=experimental acute renal failure<experimental acute hepatic failure<normal rat urine. When human urine extract was separated by a two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, several spot fractions inhibited P-gp function, and equilin was identified in one fraction as an endogenous P-gp inhibitor. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that urine contains many endogenous P-gp inhibitors, and their inhibitory potencies on P-gp function vary with intra- and inter-individual variations, and under different physiological states.[1]


  1. Interaction of endogenous compounds in human and rat urine with P-glycoprotein. Murakami, T., Fukuda, T., Yumoto, R., Nagai, J., Kuramoto, T., Takano, M. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities