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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression of cyclin E renders cyclin D-CDK4 dispensable for inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, activation of E2F, and G1-S phase progression.

The activation of CDK2-cyclin E in late G1 phase has been shown to play a critical role in retinoblastoma protein (pRb) inactivation and G1-S phase progression of the cell cycle. The phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase inhibitor LY294002 has been shown to block cyclin D1 accumulation, CDK4 activity and, thus, G1 progression in alpha-thrombin-stimulated IIC9 cells (Chinese hamster embryonic fibroblasts). Our previous results show that expression of cyclin E rescues S phase progression in alpha-thrombin-stimulated IIC9 cells treated with LY294002, arguing that cyclin E renders CDK4 activity dispensable for G1 progression. In this work we investigate the ability of alpha-thrombin-induced CDK2-cyclin E activity to inactivate pRb in the absence of prior CDK4-cyclin D1 activity. We report that in the absence of CDK4-cyclin D1 activity, CDK2-cyclin E phosphorylates pRb in vivo on at least one residue and abolishes pRb binding to E2F response elements. We also find that expression of cyclin E rescues E2F activation and cyclin A expression in cyclin D kinase-inhibited, alpha-thrombin-stimulated cells. Furthermore, the rescue of E2F activity, cyclin A expression, and DNA synthesis by expression of E can be blocked by the expression of either CDK2(D145N) or RbDeltaCDK, a constitutively active mutant of pRb. However, restoring four known cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation sites to RbDeltaCDK renders it susceptible to inactivation in late G1, as assayed by E2F activation, cyclin A expression, and S phase progression. These data indicate that CDK2-cyclin E, without prior CDK4-cyclin D activity, can phosphorylate and inactivate pRb, activate E2F, and induce DNA synthesis.[1]


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