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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hormonal induction of differentiation in teratocarcinoma stem cells: generation of parietal endoderm by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP.

It has previously been shown that retinoic acid induces multiple phenotypic changes in cultures of F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells. In this paper we demonstrate that these retinoid-generated cells can be converted to yet another cell type by compounds that elevate cAMP concentrations. The phenotype of the new cell type is characterized by the synthesis of plasminogen activator, laminin and type IV collagen, and by very low levels of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. The secretion of plasminogen activator and type IV collagen, and low levels of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, have been previously shown to be properties of parietal endoderm, an extraembryonic cell which is generated early in mouse embryonesis. We show here that parietal endoderm also synthesizes laminin. The cell type generated by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP treatment is therefore indistinguishable from definitive parietal endoderm. Analysis of the final phenotype indicates that it is not dependent upon the continued presence of either compound, and that cAMP agents are active only on cells that have been treated with retinoic acid.[1]


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