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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Esophageal dysmotility in brothers with an FG-like syndrome.

We present 4 brothers with developmental delay, minor anomalies, and symptoms due to gastrointestinal dysmotility. There was some resemblance with FG syndrome, although none of the brothers had sufficient findings to make this diagnosis. The index case presented with at age 1 month with screaming episodes, mild gastro-esophageal reflux ( GER), and severe constipation. Esophageal manometry studies were consistent with the diagnosis of "nutcracker esophagus." Symptomatic and manometric improvement followed treatment with oral calcium channel blockers. Two older and less severely affected brothers had similar manometric findings but did not require treatment. A fourth brother with symptoms in infancy now has normal esophageal manometry findings. These boys in all likelihood have an X-linked syndrome with manifestations of FG syndrome, in which treatment with calcium channel blockers, produces clinical and manometric improvement. The FG syndrome is an X-linked syndrome of multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation with facultative manifestations of gastrointestinal dysmotility, including gastro-esophageal reflux, severe feeding difficulties, and constipation. Esophageal dysmotility, in particular "nutcracker esophagus," should be suspected in infants with the FG syndrome and screaming attacks.[1]


  1. Esophageal dysmotility in brothers with an FG-like syndrome. Smith, R.L., Edwards, M.J., Notaras, E., O'Loughlin, E.V. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
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