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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile and ethyl methacrylate comonomers on cellulose using ceric ions.

The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile and ethyl methacrylate from their binary mixtures onto cellulose has been carried out in the presence of Ce(IV) ions in acidic media at 30 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The graft copolymerization has shown an increasing trend on increasing the feed molarity of the comonomers and on increasing the reaction time. The analysis of grafted cellulose prepared with different feed compositions (f(AN)) has clearly indicated the existence of the synergistic effect of ethyl methacrylate on acrylonitrile which normally shows poor affinity for grafting on cellulose while used individually. The elemental analysis and IR data were used to determine the composition of grafted copolymers and reactivity ratios (r(1), r(2)) of the monomers using the Mayo and Lewis method. The reactivity ratios for acrylontrile and ethyl methacrylate have been found to be 0.68 and 1.15, respectively, which supported the alternate arrangement of the monomer blocks of individual monomers in the grafted chains. The rate of grafting has shown a square dependence on the concentration of the comonomers within the studied range of feed molarity from 0.5 to 2.5 mol dm(-3). The grafting data were used to calculate the number of grafted chains (N(g)), frequency of grafting (G(F)) per molecule of the cellulose and efficiency of grafting (G(E)). The variation in these parameters as a function of feed molarity, feed composition, and ceric ion concentration has been determined. The rate of ceric ion disappearance as a function of feed molarity and reaction time has provided strong support to consider the participation of ceric ions in the formation of free radicals at the backbone of the cellulose. On the basis of the experimental observations, reaction steps for grafting of monomers on cellulose have been proposed.[1]


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