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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of tubulin assembly and covalent binding to microtubular protein by valproic acid glucuronide in vitro.

Acyl glucuronides are reactive metabolites of carboxylate drugs, able to undergo a number of reactions in vitro and in vivo, including isomerization via intramolecular rearrangement and covalent adduct formation with proteins. The intrinsic reactivity of a particular acyl glucuronide depends upon the chemical makeup of the drug moiety. The least reactive acyl glucuronide yet reported is valproic acid acyl glucuronide (VPA-G), which is the major metabolite of the antiepileptic agent valproic acid (VPA). In this study, we showed that both VPA-G and its rearrangement isomers (iso-VPA-G) interacted with bovine brain microtubular protein ( MTP, comprised of 85% tubulin and 15% microtubule associated proteins [MAPs]). MTP was incubated with VPA, VPA-G and iso-VPA-G for 2 h at room temperature and pH 7.5 at various concentrations up to 4 mM. VPA-G and iso-VPA-G caused dose-dependent inhibition of assembly of MTP into microtubules, with 50% inhibition (IC(50)) values of 1.0 and 0.2 mM respectively, suggesting that iso-VPA-G has five times more inhibitory potential than VPA-G. VPA itself did not inhibit microtubule formation except at very high concentrations (> or =2 mM). Dialysis to remove unbound VPA-G and iso-VPA-G (prior to the assembly assay) diminished inhibition while not removing it. Comparison of covalent binding of VPA-G and iso-VPA-G (using [14C]-labelled species) showed that adduct formation was much greater for iso-VPA-G. When [14C]-iso-VPA-G was reacted with MTP in the presence of sodium cyanide (to stabilize glycation adducts), subsequent separation into tubulin and MAPs fractions by ion exchange chromatography revealed that 78 and 22% of the covalent binding occurred with the MAPs and tubulin fractions respectively. These experiments support the notion of both covalent and reversible binding playing parts in the inhibition of microtubule formation from MTP (though the acyl glucuronide of VPA is less important than its rearrangement isomers in this regard), and that both tubulin and (perhaps more importantly) MAPs form adducts with acyl glucuronides.[1]


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