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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent post-transcriptional regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by CpG DNA: tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor-associated factor 6, a diverging point in the Toll-like receptor 9-signaling.

The immune stimulatory unmethylated CpG motifs present in bacterial DNA (CpG DNA) induce expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2). The present study demonstrates that CpG DNA can up-regulate cox-2 expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms in RAW264.7 cells. To determine the CpG DNA-mediated signaling pathway that post-transcriptionally regulates cox-2 expression, a cox-2 translational reporter (COX2-3'-UTR-luciferase) was generated by inserting sequences within the 3'-untranslated region ( UTR) of cox-2 to the 3' end of the luciferase gene under control of the SV40 promoter. CpG DNA-induced COX2-3'-UTR-luciferase activity was completely inhibited by an endosomal acidification inhibitor chloroquine, a Toll-like receptor 9 antagonist inhibitory CpG DNA, or overexpression of a dominant negative (DN) form of MyD88. However, overexpression of DN-IRAK-1 or DN-TRAF6 resulted in substantial, but not complete, inhibition of the CpG DNA-induced COX2-3'-UTR-luciferase activity. Activation of all three MAPKs ( ERK, p38, and JNK) was required for optimal COX2-3'-UTR-luciferase activity induced by CpG DNA. Overexpression of DN-TRAF6 suppressed CpG DNA-mediated activation of p38 and JNK, but not ERK, explaining the partial inhibitory effects of DN-TRAF6 on CpG DNA-induced COX2-3'-UTR-luciferase activity. Co-expression of DN-TRAF6 and N17Ras completely inhibited CpG DNA-induced COX2-3'-UTR-luciferase activity, indicating the involvement of Ras in CpG DNA-mediated ERK and COX2-3'-UTR regulation. Collectively, our results suggest that MyD88 and MAPKs play a key regulatory role in CpG DNA-mediated cox-2 expression at the post-transcriptional level and that TRAF6 is a diverging point in the Toll-like receptor 9-signaling pathway for CpG DNA- mediated MAPK activation.[1]


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