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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Kinetic studies on endo-beta-galactosidase by a novel colorimetric assay and synthesis of N-acetyllactosamine-repeating oligosaccharide beta-glycosides using its transglycosylation activity.

Novel chromogenic substrates for endo-beta-galactosidase were designed on the basis of the structural features of keratan sulfate. Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-pNP (2), which consists of two repeating units of N-acetyllactosamine, was synthesized enzymatically by consecutive additions of GlcNAc and Gal residues to p-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyllactosaminide. In a similar manner, GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-pNP (1), GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glcbeta-pNP (3), Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glcbeta-pNP (4), Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glcbeta-pNP (5), and Galbeta1-6GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glcbeta-pNP (6) were synthesized as analogues of 2. Endo-beta-galactosidases released GlcNAcbeta-pNP or Glcbeta-pNP in an endo-manner from each substrate. A colorimetric assay for endo-beta-galactosidase was developed using the synthetic substrates on the basis of the determination of p-nitrophenol liberated from GlcNAcbeta-pNP or Glcbeta-pNP formed by the enzyme through a coupled reaction involving beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (beta-NAHase) or beta-d-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis by this method showed that the value of Vmax/Km of 2 for Escherichia freundii endo-beta-galactosidase was 1.7-times higher than that for keratan sulfate, indicating that 2 is very suitable as a sensitive substrate for analytical use in an endo-beta-galactosidase assay. Compound 1 still acts as a fairly good substrate despite the absence of a Gal group in the terminal position. In addition, the hydrolytic action of the enzyme toward 2 was shown to be remarkably promoted compared to that of 4 by the presence of a 2-acetamide group adjacent to the p-nitrophenyl group. This was the same in the case of a comparison of 1 and 3. Furthermore, the enzyme also catalysed a transglycosylation on 1 and converted it into GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-pNP (9) and GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-pNP (10) as the major products, which have N-acetyllactosamine repeating units.[1]


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