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Chemical Compound Review

Sulphate     sulfate

Synonyms: Sulfate-35S, Sulphate Ion, Sulfate ion, Sulfate(2-), Sulfate ions, ...
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Disease relevance of sulfate


Psychiatry related information on sulfate

  • Letter: Possible importance of hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate ratios in mental retardation [5].
  • Electroconvulsive shock or frontal cortex stimulation administered to rats at 5 but not at 180 minutes after an initial administration of morphine sulfate disrupted the development of one-trial tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine sulfate [6].
  • RESULTS: After controlling for age, height, smoking status, and BMI, alcohol consumption was positively associated with estrone sulfate concentrations (r = .17; P = .02); no statistically significant association was noted for the other plasma hormones measured [7].
  • These results provide the basis for future studies to determine the role of sulfation of peptides in humans and whether individual variations in tyrosylsulfotransferase activities correlate with individual differences in the degree of sulfate conjugation of peptides [8].
  • Use of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine sulfate can eliminate REM sleep [9].

High impact information on sulfate


Chemical compound and disease context of sulfate


Biological context of sulfate


Anatomical context of sulfate


Associations of sulfate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of sulfate

  • Impaired transepithelial migration was accompanied by a lack of both shed syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and KC, a CXC chemokine, in the alveolar fluid [33].
  • The putative tumour suppressor EXT1 alters the expression of cell-surface heparan sulfate [34].
  • Like that of CCR5, antibody association with gp120 is dependent on sulfate moieties, enhanced by CD4, and inhibited by sulfated CCR5-derived peptides [35].
  • Here, we demonstrate that the unc-52 gene encodes a nematode homolog of perlecan, the mammalian basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan [36].
  • These results indicate essential roles for cell-surface heparan sulfate in the repulsive activities of Slit2 [37].
  • NCAG1 also contains a putative chondroitin sulfate sulfotransferase domain and thus may be involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis [38].
  • We detected production of highly sulfated keratan sulfate by a two-step reaction in vitro with a mixture of beta3GnT7/beta4GalT4/CGn6ST followed by keratan sulfate galactose 6-O sulfotransferase treatment [39].
  • This study suggested the importance of root-specific and sulfur deficiency-inducible accumulation of SULTR1;1 and SULTR1;2 sulfate transporter proteins for the acquisition of sulfate from low-sulfur environment [40].
  • We hypothesize that interplay between SULTR1.1 and SULTR1.2 transporters could be an important mechanism to regulate sulfate content in the roots [41].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of sulfate


  1. A novel role for 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus 1 entry. Shukla, D., Liu, J., Blaiklock, P., Shworak, N.W., Bai, X., Esko, J.D., Cohen, G.H., Eisenberg, R.J., Rosenberg, R.D., Spear, P.G. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Mechanism of C. trachomatis attachment to eukaryotic host cells. Zhang, J.P., Stephens, R.S. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Hunter's syndrome: activity of iduronate sulfate sulfatase in the serum of pregnant heterozygotes. Zlotogora, J., Bach, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. The Pendred syndrome gene encodes a chloride-iodide transport protein. Scott, D.A., Wang, R., Kreman, T.M., Sheffield, V.C., Karniski, L.P. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Letter: Possible importance of hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate ratios in mental retardation. Schneyer, C.A., Thompson, J.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Time-dependent disruption of morphine tolerance by electroconvulsive shock and frontal cortical stimulation. Kesner, R.P., Priano, D.J., DeWitt, J.R. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Alcohol, height, and adiposity in relation to estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women. Hankinson, S.E., Willett, W.C., Manson, J.E., Hunter, D.J., Colditz, G.A., Stampfer, M.J., Longcope, C., Speizer, F.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Human liver tyrosylsulfotransferase. Young, W.F. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Sleep and sleep electroencephalogram in depressed patients treated with phenelzine. Landolt, H.P., Raimo, E.B., Schnierow, B.J., Kelsoe, J.R., Rapaport, M.H., Gillin, J.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Order out of chaos: assembly of ligand binding sites in heparan sulfate. Esko, J.D., Selleck, S.B. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Transporters of nucleotide sugars, ATP, and nucleotide sulfate in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Hirschberg, C.B., Robbins, P.W., Abeijon, C. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression and function of laminins in the embryonic and mature vasculature. Hallmann, R., Horn, N., Selg, M., Wendler, O., Pausch, F., Sorokin, L.M. Physiol. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Physiological roles and regulation of mammalian sulfate transporters. Markovich, D. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. X-linked ichthyosis: increased blood cholesterol sulfate and electrophoretic mobility of low-density lipoprotein. Epstein, E.H., Krauss, R.M., Shackleton, C.H. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. A nonconservative serine to cysteine mutation in the sulfate-binding protein, a transport receptor. He, J.J., Quiocho, F.A. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a rat liver nuclear protein that binds to the enhancer core element of three animal viruses. Johnson, P.F., Landschulz, W.H., Graves, B.J., McKnight, S.L. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Gram-negative bacillary meningitis therapy. Polyradiculitis following intralumbar aminoglycoside administration. Hollifield, J.W., Kaiser, A.B., McGee, Z.A. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Monovalent cation-induced structure of telomeric DNA: the G-quartet model. Williamson, J.R., Raghuraman, M.K., Cech, T.R. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate loading test in the diagnosis of complicated pregnancies. Tulchinsky, D., Osathanondh, R., Finn, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutations in orthologous genes in human spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and the brachymorphic mouse. ul Haque, M.F., King, L.M., Krakow, D., Cantor, R.M., Rusiniak, M.E., Swank, R.T., Superti-Furga, A., Haque, S., Abbas, H., Ahmad, W., Ahmad, M., Cohn, D.H. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Drosophila Dpp morphogen movement is independent of dynamin-mediated endocytosis but regulated by the glypican members of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Belenkaya, T.Y., Han, C., Yan, D., Opoka, R.J., Khodoun, M., Liu, H., Lin, X. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Spontaneous glycosylation of glycosaminoglycan substrates by adherent fibroblasts. Turley, E.A., Roth, S. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Immune endothelial-cell injury in heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Cines, D.B., Tomaski, A., Tannenbaum, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Bone-marrow transplantation in the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI). Biochemical and clinical status 24 months after transplantation. Krivit, W., Pierpont, M.E., Ayaz, K., Tsai, M., Ramsay, N.K., Kersey, J.H., Weisdorf, S., Sibley, R., Snover, D., McGovern, M.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Cell-free protein sorting to the regulated and constitutive secretory pathways. Tooze, S.A., Huttner, W.B. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. ACTH stimulation tests and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women with hirsutism. Siegel, S.F., Finegold, D.N., Lanes, R., Lee, P.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Androgen excess in cystic acne. Marynick, S.P., Chakmakjian, Z.H., McCaffree, D.L., Herndon, J.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Circulating heparan sulfate anticoagulant in a patient with a fatal bleeding disorder. Palmer, R.N., Rick, M.E., Rick, P.D., Zeller, J.A., Gralnick, H.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Sulfonation and molecular action. Strott, C.A. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. The biological fate of reserpine. Stitzel, R.E. Pharmacol. Rev. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in the central nervous system. Sugahara, K., Mikami, T. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Alteration of sulfate and hydrogen metabolism in the human colon by changing intestinal transit rate. Lewis, S., Cochrane, S. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Matrilysin shedding of syndecan-1 regulates chemokine mobilization and transepithelial efflux of neutrophils in acute lung injury. Li, Q., Park, P.W., Wilson, C.L., Parks, W.C. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. The putative tumour suppressor EXT1 alters the expression of cell-surface heparan sulfate. McCormick, C., Leduc, Y., Martindale, D., Mattison, K., Esford, L.E., Dyer, A.P., Tufaro, F. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Tyrosine sulfation of human antibodies contributes to recognition of the CCR5 binding region of HIV-1 gp120. Choe, H., Li, W., Wright, P.L., Vasilieva, N., Venturi, M., Huang, C.C., Grundner, C., Dorfman, T., Zwick, M.B., Wang, L., Rosenberg, E.S., Kwong, P.D., Burton, D.R., Robinson, J.E., Sodroski, J.G., Farzan, M. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Products of the unc-52 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans are homologous to the core protein of the mammalian basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Rogalski, T.M., Williams, B.D., Mullen, G.P., Moerman, D.G. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Cell-surface heparan sulfate is involved in the repulsive guidance activities of Slit2 protein. Hu, H. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate: chondroitin-glucuronate C5-epimerase is identical to SART2. Maccarana, M., Olander, B., Malmström, J., Tiedemann, K., Aebersold, R., Lindahl, U., Li, J.P., Malmström, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. Enzymes responsible for synthesis of corneal keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Kitayama, K., Hayashida, Y., Nishida, K., Akama, T.O. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  40. Posttranscriptional regulation of high-affinity sulfate transporters in Arabidopsis by sulfur nutrition. Yoshimoto, N., Inoue, E., Watanabe-Takahashi, A., Saito, K., Takahashi, H. Plant Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  41. Differential regulation of the expression of two high-affinity sulfate transporters, SULTR1.1 and SULTR1.2, in Arabidopsis. Rouached, H., Wirtz, M., Alary, R., Hell, R., Arpat, A.B., Davidian, J.C., Fourcroy, P., Berthomieu, P. Plant Physiol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  42. A pure enzyme catalyzing penicillin biosynthesis. Hollander, I.J., Shen, Y.Q., Heim, J., Demain, A.L., Wolfe, S. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  43. Glomerular epithelium: structural alterations induced by polycations. Seiler, M.W., Venkatachalam, M.A., Cotran, R.S. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  44. Separation of morphine analgesia from physical dependence. Ling, G.S., MacLeod, J.M., Lee, S., Lockhart, S.H., Pasternak, G.W. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  45. Anion-blood contact reaction (ABC reaction) in patients treated by LDL apheresis with dextran sulfate-cellulose column while receiving ACE inhibitors. Agishi, T. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  46. Orally administered zomepirac and parenterally administered morphine. Comparison for the treatment of postoperative pain. Forrest, W.H. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
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