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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

X11alpha impairs gamma- but not beta-cleavage of amyloid precursor protein.

The phosphotyrosine binding domain of the neuronal protein X11alpha/mint-1 binds to the C-terminus of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and inhibits catabolism to beta-amyloid (Abeta), but the mechanism of this effect is unclear. Coexpression of X11alpha or its PTB domain with APPswe inhibited secretion of Abeta40 but not APPsbetaswe, suggesting inhibition of gamma- but not beta-secretase. To further probe cleavage(s) inhibited by X11alpha, we coexpressed beta-secretase (BACE-1) or a component of the gamma-secretase complex (PS-1Delta9) with APP, APPswe, or C99, with and without X11alpha, in HEK293 cells. X11alpha suppressed the PS-1Delta9-induced increase in Abeta42 secretion generated from APPswe or C99. However, X11alpha did not impair BACE-1- mediated proteolysis of APP or APPswe to C99. In contrast to impaired gamma-cleavage of APPswe, X11alpha or its PTB domain did not inhibit gamma-cleavage of NotchDeltaE to NICD (the Notch intracellular domain). The X11alpha PDZ-PS.1Delta9 interaction did not affect gamma-cleavage activity. In a cell-free system, X11alpha did not inhibit the catabolism of APP C-terminal fragments. These data suggest that X11alpha may inhibit Abeta secretion from APP by impairing its trafficking to sites of active gamma-secretase complexes. By specifically targeting substrate instead of enzyme X11alpha may function as a relatively specific gamma-secretase inhibitor.[1]


  1. X11alpha impairs gamma- but not beta-cleavage of amyloid precursor protein. King, G.D., Cherian, K., Turner, R.S. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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