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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride in aqueous solutions containing ferrous and copper ions.

Fe(II) associated with iron-containing minerals has been shown to be a potential reductant in natural subsurface environments. While it is known that the surface-bound iron species has the capacity to dechlorinate various chlorinated compounds, the role of transition metals to act as catalysts with these iron species is of importance. We previously observed that the reduction of Cu(II) by Fe(II) associated with goethite enhanced the dechlorination efficiency of chlorinated compound. In this study, the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) by dissolved Fe(II) in the presence of Cu(II) ions was investigated to understand the synergistic effect of Fe(II) and Cu(II) on the dechlorination processes in homogeneous aqueous solutions. The dechlorination efficiency of CCl4 by Fe(II) increased with increasing Cu(II) concentrations over the range of 0.2-0.5 mM and then decreased at high Cu(II) concentrations. The efficiency and rate of CCl4 dechlorination also increased with increasing dissolved Fe(II) concentration in the presence of 0.5 mM Cu(II) at neutral pH. When the Fe(II)/Cu(II) ratio varied between 1 and 10, the pseudo-first-order rate constant (k(obs)) increased 250-fold from 0.007 h(-1) at 0.5 mM Fe(II) to 1.754 h(-1) at 5 mM Fe(II). X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that Cu(II) can react with Fe(II) to produce different morphologies of ferric oxides and subsequently accelerate the dechlorination rate of CCl4 at a high Fe(II) concentration. Amorphous ferrihydrite was observed when the stoichiometric Fe(II)/Cu(II) ratio was 1, while green rust, goethite, and magnetite were formed when the molar ratios of Fe(II)/Cu(II) reached 4-6. In addition, the dechlorination of CCl4 by dissolved Fe(II) is pH dependent. CCl4 can be dechlorinated by Fe(II) over a wide range of pH values in the Cu(II)-amended solutions, and the k(obs) increased from 0.0057 h(-1) at pH 4.3 to 0.856 h(-1) at pH 8.5, which was 9-25 times greater than that in the absence of Cu(II) at pH 7-8. 5. The high reactivity of dissolved Fe(II) on the dechlorination of CCl4 in the presence of Cu(II) under anoxic conditions may enhance our understanding of the role of Fe(II) and the long-term reactivity of the zerovalent iron system in the dechlorination processes for chlorinated organic contaminants.[1]


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