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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of X-Rays


Psychiatry related information on X-Rays

  • Alzheimer's disease: X-ray spectrometric evidence of aluminum accumulation in neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons [6].
  • We have analyzed by density functional theory the possible variations of the electronic properties of the [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, from the cyanobacterium Anabaena, depending on the redox-linked structural changes observed by X-ray diffraction at atomic resolution (Morales, R.; et al. Biochemistry 1999, 38, 15764-15773) [7].
  • On the other hand, PRI mean showed significant differences dependent on age and was inversely correlated with alcohol consumption and X-ray exposure [8].
  • We report on an 8-year-old boy with severe mental retardation, epileptic seizures, autistic behaviour, and X-ray CT findings of the skull characteristics for tuberous sclerosis [9].
  • We have also measured a detector MTF of 14% at 2 lp/mm, a signal of 10 pC for a 1-mR x-ray exposure at the detector entrance, a 6% nonlinearity in the detector signal over about 3 orders of magnitude in x-ray exposure, and a charge collection time (time response) of about 0.1 ms [10].

High impact information on X-Rays

  • Two X-ray structures of cobalamin (B12) bound to proteins have now been determined [11].
  • An X-ray structure of the F1 portion of the mitochondrial ATP synthase shows asymmetry and differences in nucleotide binding of the catalytic beta subunits that support the binding change mechanism with an internal rotation of the gamma subunit [12].
  • Recently, the detailed structure of bacterial CLC proteins was determined by X-ray analysis of three-dimensional crystals [13].
  • Moreover, through a combination of biochemical, cell-biological, and X-ray crystallographic approaches, we reveal the molecular details of the MDC1/NFBD1-gammaH2AX complex [14].
  • We determined the X-ray structure of She2p at 1.95 A resolution [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of X-Rays


Biological context of X-Rays

  • Accumulation of p53 protein was seen in the nuclei of mammalian cells following DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV), X-ray, or a restriction enzyme [21].
  • The X-ray structures of the guanine nucleotide binding domains (amino acids 1-166) of five mutants of the H-ras oncogene product p21 were determined [22].
  • Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of astacin, which reveals a deep active-site cleft, with the zinc at its bottom ligated by three histidines, a water molecule and a more remote tyrosine [23].
  • Here we report the X-ray structure of the catalytic core of hOGG1 bound to oxoG x C-containing DNA at 2.1 A resolution [24].
  • Time-resolved X-ray crystallographic study of the conformational change in Ha-Ras p21 protein on GTP hydrolysis [25].

Anatomical context of X-Rays


Associations of X-Rays with chemical compounds

  • Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of human cPLA2 at 2.5 A. cPLA2 consists of an N-terminal calcium-dependent lipid-binding/C2 domain and a catalytic unit whose topology is distinct from that of other lipases [31].
  • The X-ray structure of the human core U2AF heterodimer, consisting of the U2AF35 central domain and a proline-rich region of U2AF65, has been determined at 2.2 A resolution [32].
  • The X-ray structure of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), bound to 7-methyl-GDP, has been determined at 2.2 A resolution. eIF4E recognizes 5' 7-methyl-G(5')ppp(5')N mRNA caps during the rate-limiting initiation step of translation [33].
  • X-ray analysis at 2.7 A resolution reveals two distinct conformations in the presence and absence of ferrichrome [34].
  • The structure of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in complex with IMP and mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been determined by X-ray diffraction [35].

Gene context of X-Rays

  • The X-ray crystal structure of the complex of the extracellular domain of the human 55 kd tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor with human TNF beta has been determined at 2.85 A resolution [36].
  • Homozygous RAD54-/- mutant clones were highly X-ray sensitive compared to wildtype cells [37].
  • The X-ray structure of a ternary complex of Negative Cofactor 2 (NC2), the TATA box binding protein (TBP), and DNA has been determined at 2.6 A resolution [38].
  • Here, we identify histone H1.2 as a cytochrome c-releasing factor that appears in the cytoplasm after exposure to X-ray irradiation [39].
  • The three-dimensional structure of bovine profilin-beta-actin has been solved to 2.55 A resolution by X-ray crystallography [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of X-Rays

  • The first structures have been obtained for complexes between CUE domains and monoubiquitin, one by NMR (Kang et al., this issue of Cell) and one by X-ray crystallography (Prag et al., this issue of Cell), thus providing insights into ubiquitin recognition by CUE domains [41].
  • Crystallization of such materials from formic acid produces beta-sheet structures in the solid state, as shown by vibrational spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and wide-angle x-ray diffraction [42].
  • Especially, a delayed passage through the S phase and influences on the G2 phase resemble x-ray irradiation effects on cell cultures [43].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by dual-energy x-ray densitometry at 2 weeks (baseline), 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and 12 months following parturition, and BMD of the lumbar spine was measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months after parturition [44].
  • Soft X-ray, indirect immunofluorescence, and green fluorescent protein time-lapse microscopy reveal that MIZ-1 is largely cytoplasmic but accumulates in the nuclei of HepG2 cells upon treatment with T113242 [45].


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  16. Molecular structure of the acyl-enzyme intermediate in beta-lactam hydrolysis at 1.7 A resolution. Strynadka, N.C., Adachi, H., Jensen, S.E., Johns, K., Sielecki, A., Betzel, C., Sutoh, K., James, M.N. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. The 2.3 angstrom X-ray structure of nitrite reductase from Achromobacter cycloclastes. Godden, J.W., Turley, S., Teller, D.C., Adman, E.T., Liu, M.Y., Payne, W.J., LeGall, J. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
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  22. Three-dimensional structures of H-ras p21 mutants: molecular basis for their inability to function as signal switch molecules. Krengel, U., Schlichting, L., Scherer, A., Schumann, R., Frech, M., John, J., Kabsch, W., Pai, E.F., Wittinghofer, A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Structure of astacin and implications for activation of astacins and zinc-ligation of collagenases. Bode, W., Gomis-Rüth, F.X., Huber, R., Zwilling, R., Stöcker, W. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Structural basis for recognition and repair of the endogenous mutagen 8-oxoguanine in DNA. Bruner, S.D., Norman, D.P., Verdine, G.L. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
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  30. G-protein signaling through tubby proteins. Santagata, S., Boggon, T.J., Baird, C.L., Gomez, C.A., Zhao, J., Shan, W.S., Myszka, D.G., Shapiro, L. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Crystal structure of human cytosolic phospholipase A2 reveals a novel topology and catalytic mechanism. Dessen, A., Tang, J., Schmidt, H., Stahl, M., Clark, J.D., Seehra, J., Somers, W.S. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. A novel peptide recognition mode revealed by the X-ray structure of a core U2AF35/U2AF65 heterodimer. Kielkopf, C.L., Rodionova, N.A., Green, M.R., Burley, S.K. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Cocrystal structure of the messenger RNA 5' cap-binding protein (eIF4E) bound to 7-methyl-GDP. Marcotrigiano, J., Gingras, A.C., Sonenberg, N., Burley, S.K. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Transmembrane signaling across the ligand-gated FhuA receptor: crystal structures of free and ferrichrome-bound states reveal allosteric changes. Locher, K.P., Rees, B., Koebnik, R., Mitschler, A., Moulinier, L., Rosenbusch, J.P., Moras, D. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Structure and mechanism of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase in complex with the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid. Sintchak, M.D., Fleming, M.A., Futer, O., Raybuck, S.A., Chambers, S.P., Caron, P.R., Murcko, M.A., Wilson, K.P. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
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  38. Crystal structure of negative cofactor 2 recognizing the TBP-DNA transcription complex. Kamada, K., Shu, F., Chen, H., Malik, S., Stelzer, G., Roeder, R.G., Meisterernst, M., Burley, S.K. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
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