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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Antistaphylococcal effect related to the area under the curve/MIC ratio in an in vitro dynamic model: predicted breakpoints versus clinically achievable values for seven fluoroquinolones.

Prediction of the relative efficacies of different fluoroquinolones is often based on the ratios of the clinically achievable area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to the MIC, usually with incorporation of the MIC50 or the MIC90 and with the assumption of antibiotic-independent patterns of the AUC/MIC-response relationships. To ascertain whether this assumption is correct, the pharmacodynamics of seven pharmacokinetically different quinolones against two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were studied by using an in vitro model. Two differentially susceptible clinical isolates of S. aureus were exposed to two 12-h doses of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and one dose of gatifloxacin (GAT), gemifloxacin (GEM), grepafloxacin (GRX), levofloxacin (LVX), moxifloxacin (MXF), and trovafloxacin (TVA) over similar AUC/MIC ranges from 58 to 932 h. A specific bacterial strain-independent AUC/MIC relationship with the antimicrobial effect (I(E)) was associated with each quinolone. Based on the I(E)-log AUC/MIC relationships, breakpoints (BPs) that are equivalent to a CIP AUC/MIC ratio of 125 h were predicted for GRX, MXF, and TVA (75 to 78 h), GAT and GEM (95 to 103 h) and LVX (115 h). With GRX and LVX, the predicted BPs were close to those established in clinical settings (no clinical data on other quinolones are available in the literature). To determine if the predicted AUC/MIC BPs are achievable at clinical doses, i.e., at the therapeutic AUCs (AUC(ther)s), the AUC(ther)/MIC50 ratios were studied. These ratios exceeded the BPs for GAT, GEM, GRX, MXF, TVA, and LVX (750 mg) but not for CIP and LVX (500 mg). AUC/MIC ratios above the BPs can be considered of therapeutic potential for the quinolones. The highest ratios of AUC(ther)/MIC50 to BP were achieved with TVA, MXF, and GEM (2.5 to 3.0); intermediate ratios (1.5 to 1.6) were achieved with GAT and GRX; and minimal ratios (0.3 to 1.2) were achieved with CIP and LVX.[1]


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