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Chemical Compound Review

Ciprinol     1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo- 7-piperazin-1...

Synonyms: Cetraxal, Cifloxin, Ciprobay, Ciprodar, Ciprogis, ...
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Disease relevance of ciprofloxacin


Psychiatry related information on ciprofloxacin


High impact information on ciprofloxacin


Chemical compound and disease context of ciprofloxacin


Biological context of ciprofloxacin


Anatomical context of ciprofloxacin

  • LMP triggers mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), as detected by the release of cytochrome c. Both CPX and NFX* cause Bax and Bak to adopt their apoptotic conformation and to insert into mitochondrial membranes [26].
  • Prophylactic ciprofloxacin for catheter-associated urinary-tract infection [27].
  • Since ciprofloxacin penetrates well into macrophages, this drug was given to two patients with advanced malakoplakia (500 mg twice daily) [28].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with active Crohn's disease of the ileum, the addition of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole to budesonide is an ineffective intervention, but this antibiotic combination may improve outcome when there is involvement of the colon [29].
  • A mean of 2.7 days after the start of the treatment, development of ciprofloxacin resistance was detected in S epidermidis from the axilla of all persons, compared with 11 days for the appearance of resistant S epidermidis in nostrils [30].

Associations of ciprofloxacin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of ciprofloxacin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ciprofloxacin


  1. Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections in Minnesota, 1992-1998. Investigation Team. Smith, K.E., Besser, J.M., Hedberg, C.W., Leano, F.T., Bender, J.B., Wicklund, J.H., Johnson, B.P., Moore, K.A., Osterholm, M.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Ciprofloxacin in a case of Q fever endocarditis. Yebra, M., Ortigosa, J., Albarrán, F., Crespo, M.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. A double-blind comparison of empirical oral and intravenous antibiotic therapy for low-risk febrile patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. Freifeld, A., Marchigiani, D., Walsh, T., Chanock, S., Lewis, L., Hiemenz, J., Hiemenz, S., Hicks, J.E., Gill, V., Steinberg, S.M., Pizzo, P.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Ciprofloxacin-induced vasculitis. Choe, U., Rothschild, B.M., Laitman, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Oral versus intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy for fever in patients with granulocytopenia who are receiving cancer chemotherapy. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Kern, W.V., Cometta, A., De Bock, R., Langenaeken, J., Paesmans, M., Gaya, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Ciprofloxacin-mediated cell proliferation inhibition and G2/M cell cycle arrest in rat tendon cells. Tsai, W.C., Hsu, C.C., Tang, F.T., Wong, A.M., Chen, Y.C., Pang, J.H. Arthritis Rheum. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Ciprofloxacin in primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Terg, R., Fassio, E., Guevara, M., Cartier, M., Longo, C., Lucero, R., Landeira, C., Romero, G., Dominguez, N., Muñoz, A., Levi, D., Miguez, C., Abecasis, R. J. Hepatol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  8. Ciprofloxacin-induced complex partial status epilepticus manifesting as an acute confusional state. Isaacson, S.H., Carr, J., Rowan, A.J. Neurology (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Ciprofloxacin-induced catatonia. Akhtar, S., Ahmad, H. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Intravenous ciprofloxacin as treatment for patients with acute suppurative cholangitis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Sung, J.J., Lyon, D.J., Suen, R., Chung, S.C., Co, A.L., Cheng, A.F., Leung, J.W., Li, A.K. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. A follow-up safety study of ciprofloxacin users. Jick, S.S., Jick, H., Dean, A.D. Pharmacotherapy (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Prolonged electroconvulsive therapy seizure in a patient taking ciprofloxacin. Kisa, C., Yildirim, S.G., Aydemir, C., Cebeci, S., Goka, E. The journal of ECT. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Fluoroquinolone-modifying enzyme: a new adaptation of a common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Robicsek, A., Strahilevitz, J., Jacoby, G.A., Macielag, M., Abbanat, D., Park, C.H., Bush, K., Hooper, D.C. Nat. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A plastid organelle as a drug target in apicomplexan parasites. Fichera, M.E., Roos, D.S. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of ciprofloxacin (7 days) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14 days) for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis pyelonephritis in women: a randomized trial. Talan, D.A., Stamm, W.E., Hooton, T.M., Moran, G.J., Burke, T., Iravani, A., Reuning-Scherer, J., Church, D.A. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Antibiotic susceptibility among aerobic gram-negative bacilli in intensive care units in 5 European countries. French and Portuguese ICU Study Groups. Hanberger, H., Garcia-Rodriguez, J.A., Gobernado, M., Goossens, H., Nilsson, L.E., Struelens, M.J. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. Wiener, J., Quinn, J.P., Bradford, P.A., Goering, R.V., Nathan, C., Bush, K., Weinstein, R.A. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing acute uncomplicated cystitis in women. Gupta, K., Scholes, D., Stamm, W.E. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Ciprofloxacin compared with doxycycline for nongonococcal urethritis. Ineffectiveness against Chlamydia trachomatis due to relapsing infection. Hooton, T.M., Rogers, M.E., Medina, T.G., Kuwamura, L.E., Ewers, C., Roberts, P.L., Stamm, W.E. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Salicylate induces an antibiotic efflux pump in Burkholderia cepacia complex genomovar III (B. cenocepacia). Nair, B.M., Cheung, K.J., Griffith, A., Burns, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Interferon alpha-2a and ciprofloxacin synergistically inhibit leukemic cell growth. Hahn, T., Shtalrid, M., Berrebi, A., Malach, L., Barak, Y., Rubinstein, E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Randomised controlled comparison of single-dose ciprofloxacin and doxycycline for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae 01 or 0139. Khan, W.A., Bennish, M.L., Seas, C., Khan, E.H., Ronan, A., Dhar, U., Busch, W., Salam, M.A. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Quinolone resistance from a transferable plasmid. Martínez-Martínez, L., Pascual, A., Jacoby, G.A. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Ciprofloxacin in sweat and antibiotic resistance. The Copenhagen Study Group on Antibiotics in Sweat. Høiby, N., Johansen, H.K. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of hepatic stimulator substance, herbal medicine, selenium/vitamin E, and ciprofloxacin on cirrhosis in the rat. Zhang, M., Song, G., Minuk, G.Y. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization induces cell death in a mitochondrion-dependent fashion. Boya, P., Andreau, K., Poncet, D., Zamzami, N., Perfettini, J.L., Metivier, D., Ojcius, D.M., Jäättelä, M., Kroemer, G. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Prophylactic ciprofloxacin for catheter-associated urinary-tract infection. van der Wall, E., Verkooyen, R.P., Mintjes-de Groot, J., Oostinga, J., van Dijk, A., Hustinx, W.N., Verbrugh, H.A. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Ciprofloxacin for treatment of malakoplakia. van Furth, R., van't Wout, J.W., Wertheimer, P.A., Zwartendijk, J. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Combined budesonide and antibiotic therapy for active Crohn's disease: a randomized controlled trial. Steinhart, A.H., Feagan, B.G., Wong, C.J., Vandervoort, M., Mikolainis, S., Croitoru, K., Seidman, E., Leddin, D.J., Bitton, A., Drouin, E., Cohen, A., Greenberg, G.R. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Høiby, N., Jarløv, J.O., Kemp, M., Tvede, M., Bangsborg, J.M., Kjerulf, A., Pers, C., Hansen, H. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Antibiotic treatment improves survival in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Mithöfer, K., Fernández-del Castillo, C., Ferraro, M.J., Lewandrowski, K., Rattner, D.W., Warshaw, A.L. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Isenmann, R., Rünzi, M., Kron, M., Kahl, S., Kraus, D., Jung, N., Maier, L., Malfertheiner, P., Goebell, H., Beger, H.G. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Novel modes of action of aminoglycoside antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Morris, G., Brown, M.R. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Methadone, ciprofloxacin, and adverse drug reactions. Herrlin, K., Segerdahl, M., Gustafsson, L.L., Kalso, E. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Enhanced repopulation of murine hematopoietic organs in sublethally irradiated mice after treatment with ciprofloxacin. Kletter, Y., Riklis, I., Shalit, I., Fabian, I. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Superinduction of cytokine gene transcription by ciprofloxacin. Riesbeck, K., Sigvardsson, M., Leanderson, T., Forsgren, A. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Ciprofloxacin enhances the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression by interleukin-1beta in human tendon-derived cells. A potential mechanism of fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy. Corps, A.N., Harrall, R.L., Curry, V.A., Fenwick, S.A., Hazleman, B.L., Riley, G.P. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Long-term treatment of ulcerative colitis with ciprofloxacin: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Turunen, U.M., Färkkilä, M.A., Hakala, K., Seppälä, K., Sivonen, A., Ogren, M., Vuoristo, M., Valtonen, V.V., Miettinen, T.A. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Randomised comparison of ciprofloxacin suspension and pivmecillinam for childhood shigellosis. Salam, M.A., Dhar, U., Khan, W.A., Bennish, M.L. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Ciprofloxacin for cholangitis after hepatic portoenterostomy. Houwen, R.H., Bijleveld, C.M., de Vries-Hospers, H.G. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
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