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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of controlled-release on the pharmacokinetics and absorption characteristics of a compound undergoing intestinal efflux in humans.

OBJECTIVE: The number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) undergoing inhibitable and saturable intestinal efflux is considerable. As a consequence, absorption and bioavailability may depend on the intestinal concentration profile of the drug and may vary as a function of dose and release rate of the drug from the dosage form. The impact of controlled versus immediate-release on the absorption of P-glycoprotein substrates is currently unknown. Thus, the main focus of the present study was a comparison of the pharmacokinetics of the P-gp model substrate talinolol following administration of immediate-release (IR) and controlled-release (CR) tablets to healthy human volunteers with a particular focus on the absorption characteristics of the active pharmaceutical ingredients. METHODS: Talinolol immediate-release (Cordanum((R)), 100mg), one controlled-release (100mg) and two controlled-release tablets (200mg) were administered as single doses to fasting healthy volunteers in a crossover design with a 1 week washout period between treatments. Sufficient blood and urine samples were drawn and analysed using a specific HPLC method with UV detection to describe the resulting plasma and urinary excretion versus time profiles. RESULTS: The bioavailability of talinolol in term of AUC(0-->infinity) for IR talinolol was approximately twice as high as compared to the administration of the same dose in a controlled-release dosage form. After administration of talinolol IR tablets, the drug was rapidly absorbed and reached maximum concentrations C(max) of 204.5ng/ml+/-121.8 (means+/-S.D.) 2h after dosing. The terminal half-life of the drug averaged 19.8h following IR administration in comparison to 32h under CR dosing conditions. Following administration of the IR dosage form, significant secondary peaks were observed in one healthy subject. Secondary peaks were not clearly apparent in the CR plasma profiles. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates a considerable loss of bioavailability of drugs that are substrates of intestinal secretory transporters upon their administration in controlled-release dosage forms.[1]


  1. Effects of controlled-release on the pharmacokinetics and absorption characteristics of a compound undergoing intestinal efflux in humans. Tubic, M., Wagner, D., Spahn-Langguth, H., Weiler, C., Wanitschke, R., B??cher, W.O., Langguth, P. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. (2006) [Pubmed]
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