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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Human Experimentation

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Disease relevance of Human Experimentation

  • IMPLICATIONS: Based on the recent observation of others that IL-10 has little toxicity when administered systemically to human volunteers and also on the findings of this study that it has antitumor and antimetastitic properties in mice, possible use of IL-10 in the treatment of human metastatic cancers deserves consideration [1].
  • Pteroylglutamic acid, 10 microgram/ml, added to wines and given in doses of the beverages (4 ml/kg body weight that caused inebriation, was well absorbed by six normal human volunteers (mean maximal increment in serum folate concentration +/- SEM, 71 +/- 8 ng/ml) and by seven recently intoxicated chronic alcoholics (mean increment, 94 +/- 4 ng/ml) [2].
  • After experimental endotoxemia in human volunteers, IL-1ra concentrations increase from a baseline concentration of 460 +/- 200 pg mL-1 to 14,870 +/- 290 pg mL-1 at 3 hours (P less than .05) [3].
  • Seronegative human volunteers were immunized with a purified recombinant form of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 in a phase I vaccine trial [4].
  • It has been reported that approximately one-third of human volunteers, smokers and nonsmokers, exhibit immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to a glycoprotein antigen (TGP) purified from cured tobacco leaves and present in cigarette smoke [5].

Psychiatry related information on Human Experimentation


High impact information on Human Experimentation

  • An attempt was made to isolate and identify the organisms capable of reducing digoxin from stool cultures obtained from human volunteers [11].
  • Since the activity of testosterone reductases is rate limiting for testosterone metabolism in the liver, the effect of prolonged ethanol consumption by rats and human volunteers on the activities of these microsomal and cytosolic enzymes was studied [12].
  • When charcoal-broiled beef was fed to human volunteers, who were then given phenacetin orally, the concentration of phenacetin in the plasma was lowered, but its half-life in the plasma was not changed [13].
  • Physostigmine (an anticholinesterase agent that increases acetylcholine at the synapse), in a dose of 0.5 milligram, was given intravenously to seven normal human volunteers [14].
  • In this issue of Immunity, Walther et al. have now shown that following experimental malaria infection of human volunteers, enhanced TGF-beta and T reg responses are associated with a faster parasite growth rate [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Human Experimentation


Biological context of Human Experimentation


Anatomical context of Human Experimentation


Associations of Human Experimentation with chemical compounds

  • In rats, long-term ethanol ingestion doubled microsomal 5alpha-testosterone reductase activity, a major pathway for testosterone metabolism, while in human volunteers the activity was increased two- to fivefold [12].
  • These glucose anomers were dissolved rapidly and administered intravenously to human volunteers at a high dose (0.5 g/kg) over a 3-min period or a low dose (3.5 g) over a 20-s period [31].
  • We studied the incorporation and metabolism of eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid in six human volunteers who supplemented their normal Western diet for 5 mo daily with 10-40 ml of cod liver oil, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [32].
  • After infusion of G17 intravenously in normal human volunteers, COOH-terminal and NH2-terminal immunoreactive G17 fragments were generated [33].
  • METHODS: Serum levels of the markers 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) monitoring bile acid biosynthesis and lathosterol reflecting cholesterol synthesis were determined at 90-minute intervals in 8 human volunteers during standardized dietary conditions [34].

Gene context of Human Experimentation

  • We investigated whether AMD3100, a selective CXCR4 antagonist, could mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells from marrow to peripheral blood in healthy human volunteers [35].
  • (111)In-Labeled diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate derivatives of minigastrin showed excellent targeting of CCK-B receptor-expressing tissues in animals and a normal human volunteer [36].
  • The plasma hCRF-BP level was 0.9 +/- 0.08 nmol/L in normal human volunteers (10 men and 9 women; mean +/- SD age, 74.2 +/- 7.7 yr), decreased to 60% of basal levels 15 min after a bolus injection of 1 microgram/kg synthetic hCRF, and gradually returned to preinjection levels after 120 min [37].
  • BACKGROUND: We have been studying the innate immune response of airways cells of healthy human volunteers to inhaled LPS, a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand, and have shown that macrophage phagocytic capacity is blunted [38].
  • METHODS: The involvement of CYP2E1 was assessed through pretreatment of adult human volunteers with disulfiram to inhibit the enzyme and the role of CYP3A4 through its induction in a second cohort of adults with rifampin (INN, rifampicin) [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Human Experimentation


  1. Antimetastatic and antitumor activities of interleukin 10 in a murine model of breast cancer. Kundu, N., Beaty, T.L., Jackson, M.J., Fulton, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The bioavailability of folic acid added to wine. Kaunitz, J.D., Lindenbaum, J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist circulates in experimental inflammation and in human disease. Fischer, E., Van Zee, K.J., Marano, M.A., Rock, C.S., Kenney, J.S., Poutsiaka, D.D., Dinarello, C.A., Lowry, S.F., Moldawer, L.L. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. An HIV-1 envelope protein vaccine elicits a functionally complex human CD4+ T cell response that includes cytolytic T lymphocytes. Stanhope, P.E., Liu, A.Y., Pavlat, W., Pitha, P.M., Clements, M.L., Siliciano, R.F. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Cardiac and pulmonary anaphylaxis in guinea pigs and rabbits induced by glycoprotein isolated from tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke condensate. Levi, R., Zavecz, J.H., Burke, J.A., Becker, C.G. Am. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Gastrointestinal motor effects of erythromycin in humans. Sarna, S.K., Soergel, K.H., Koch, T.R., Stone, J.E., Wood, C.M., Ryan, R.P., Arndorfer, R.C., Cavanaugh, J.H., Nellans, H.N., Lee, M.B. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. The effect of total sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin and cortisol in healthy human volunteers. Salín-Pascual, R.J., Ortega-Soto, H., Huerto-Delgadillo, L., Camacho-Arroyo, I., Roldán-Roldán, G., Tamarkin, L. Sleep. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Human progressive-ratio performance: maintenance by pentobarbital. McLeod, D.R., Griffiths, R.R. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Improved short-term spatial memory but impaired reversal learning following the dopamine D(2) agonist bromocriptine in human volunteers. Mehta, M.A., Swainson, R., Ogilvie, A.D., Sahakian, J., Robbins, T.W. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of ZK 93,426, a beta-carboline benzodiazepine receptor antagonist on night sleep pattern in healthy male volunteers. Duka, T., Goerke, D., Fichte, K. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Digoxin-inactivating bacteria: identification in human gut flora. Saha, J.R., Butler, V.P., Neu, H.C., Lindenbaum, J. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Prolonged ethanol consumption increases testosterone metabolism in the liver. Rubin, E., Lieber, C.S., Altman, K., Gordon, G.G., Southren, A.L. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of charcoal-broiled beef on phenacetin metabolism in man. Pantuck, E.J., Hsiao, K.C., Conney, A.H., Garland, W.A., Kappas, A., Anderson, K.E., Alvares, A.P. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. REM sleep induction by physostigmine infusion during sleep. Sitaram, N., Wyatt, R.J., Dawson, S., Gillin, J.C. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of early cellular immune factors regulating growth of malaria parasites in humans. Good, M.F. Immunity (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. The influence of corticosteroids and topical indomethacin on sunburn erythema. Kaidbey, K.H., Kurban, A.K. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of quinupristin/dalfopristin on production of cytokines by human monocytes. Khan, A.A., Slifer, T.R., Araujo, F.G., Remington, J.S. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Safety and immunogenicity of group Y and group W135 meningococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccines in adults. Griffiss, J.M., Brandt, B.L., Altieri, P.L., Pier, G.B., Berman, S.L. Infect. Immun. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Production of intraepidermal microabscesses by topical application of leukotriene B4. Camp, R., Jones, R.R., Brain, S., Woollard, P., Greaves, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Selective antimicrobial modulation of the intestinal tract by norfloxacin in human volunteers and in gnotobiotic mice associated with a human fecal flora. Pecquet, S., Andremont, A., Tancrède, C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Down-regulation of CD46 by piliated Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gill, D.B., Koomey, M., Cannon, J.G., Atkinson, J.P. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between spectral components of cardiovascular variabilities and direct measures of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans. Pagani, M., Montano, N., Porta, A., Malliani, A., Abboud, F.M., Birkett, C., Somers, V.K. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Defective platelet function following the administration of penicillin compounds. Brown, C.H., Bradshaw, M.J., Natelson, E.A., Alfrey, C.P., Williams, T.W. Blood (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Pharmacologic interruption of the renin-angiotensin system and the kidney: differential responses to angiotensin-converting enzyme and renin inhibition. Hollenberg, N.K. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Superior bioavailability of digoxin solution in capsules. Mallis, G.I., Schmidt, D.H., Lindenbaum, J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. Relationship between the coenzyme A and the carnitine pools in human skeletal muscle at rest and after exhaustive exercise under normoxic and acutely hypoxic conditions. Friolet, R., Hoppeler, H., Krähenbühl, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of 1-phenylpentanol on release of secretin and exocrine pancreatic secretion in dogs and humans. Chey, W.Y., Millikan, L., Lee, K.Y., Watanabe, S., Shiratori, K., Takeuchi, T. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. The mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction. I. Human epidermal cells elicit a greater allogeneic lymphocyte response than do autologous peripheral blood lymphoid cells. Sontheimer, R.D. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Rhinovirus regulation of IL-1 receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro: a potential mechanism of symptom resolution. Yoon, H.J., Zhu, Z., Gwaltney, J.M., Elias, J.A. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of a single oral dose of enprostil on gastric secretion and gastrin release. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with pernicious anemia. Buchanan, N., Laferla, G., Hearns, J., Buchanan, K.D., Crean, G.P., McColl, K.E. Am. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Insulin release is glucose anomeric specific in the human. Rossini, A.A., Soeldner, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. Long-term effects of dietary marine omega-3 fatty acids upon plasma and cellular lipids, platelet function, and eicosanoid formation in humans. von Schacky, C., Fischer, S., Weber, P.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Metabolism of heptadecapeptide gastrin in humans studied by region-specific antisera. Pauwels, S., Dockray, G.J., Walker, R., Marcus, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Bile acid synthesis in humans has a rapid diurnal variation that is asynchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Gälman, C., Angelin, B., Rudling, M. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells in healthy volunteers by AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist. Liles, W.C., Broxmeyer, H.E., Rodger, E., Wood, B., Hübel, K., Cooper, S., Hangoc, G., Bridger, G.J., Henson, G.W., Calandra, G., Dale, D.C. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor binding peptides: preclinical development and evaluation of their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Behr, T.M., Béhé, M., Angerstein, C., Gratz, S., Mach, R., Hagemann, L., Jenner, N., Stiehler, M., Frank-Raue, K., Raue, F., Becker, W. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Measurement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP), and CRF/CRF-BP complex in human plasma by two-site enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay. Behan, D.P., Khongsaly, O., Liu, X.J., Ling, N., Goland, R., Nasman, B., Olsson, T., De Souza, E.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Acute LPS inhalation in healthy volunteers induces dendritic cell maturation in vivo. Alexis, N.E., Lay, J.C., Almond, M., Bromberg, P.A., Patel, D.D., Peden, D.B. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Contribution of CYP2E1 and CYP3A to acetaminophen reactive metabolite formation. Manyike, P.T., Kharasch, E.D., Kalhorn, T.F., Slattery, J.T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Inhibition of digoxin absorption by neomycin. Lindenbaum, J., Maulitz, R.M., Butler, V.P. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  41. Elevated plasma concentrations of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, a putative endogenous inhibitor of the tritiated imipramine binding site, in depressed patients. Nemeroff, C.B., Krishnan, K.R., Blazer, D.G., Knight, D.L., Benjamin, D., Meyerson, L.R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  42. ES-8891, an orally active inhibitor of human renin. Kokubu, T., Hiwada, K., Murakami, E., Muneta, S., Kitami, Y., Salmon, P.F. Hypertension (1990) [Pubmed]
  43. Grapefruit juice and its flavonoids inhibit 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Lee, Y.S., Lorenzo, B.J., Koufis, T., Reidenberg, M.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  44. Regional kinetic constants and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in normal human volunteers determined by dynamic positron emission tomography of [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Heiss, W.D., Pawlik, G., Herholz, K., Wagner, R., Göldner, H., Wienhard, K. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1984) [Pubmed]
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