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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Benzidine transformation processes in natural sediments.

Aromatic amines, such as benzidine and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, are chemicals used in the pigment and dye processes. Release of these compounds into the environment is important because of their carcinogenic and toxic nature. In the present study, the sediment and water samples were collected from Lake Macatawa (Holland, MI, USA) and subsequently spiked with benzidine. The grain size distribution of the sediment samples investigated here ranged in composition from sandy to silty-clay sediment types. The sediment-water systems spiked with benzidine were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 4, 15, and 23 degrees C for 211 d. Degradation of benzidine was observed over the time-course analysis of the sediment-water mixtures. Three possible metabolites (aniline, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and 1-amino-2-hexene) were observed during this investigation as a result of gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry. No metabolites were observed in autoclaved bottles, suggesting that the transformation of benzidine in the sediment-water mixtures was the result of microbial activity. From sediment-water distribution experiments, benzidine demonstrated higher sorption affinity for the different sediment phases than its degradation product, aniline. Therefore, microbially mediated transformation of benzidine to aniline is expected to yield a greater total concentration of the more mobile compound, aniline, in the water phase and a greater possibility for transport of aniline in the water phase.[1]


  1. Benzidine transformation processes in natural sediments. Harden, J., Jewell, A., Donaldson, F.P., Nyman, M.C. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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