The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cytokine responses to Schistosoma haematobium in a Zimbabwean population: contrasting profiles for IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 with age.

BACKGROUND: The rate of development of parasite-specific immune responses can be studied by following their age profiles in exposed and infected hosts. This study determined the cytokine-age profiles of Zimbabweans resident in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area and further investigated the relationship between the cytokine responses and infection intensity. METHODS: Schistosome adult worm antigen-specific IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine responses elicited from whole blood cultures were studied in 190 Zimbabweans exposed to S. haematobium infection (aged 6 to 40 years old). The cytokines were measured using capture ELISAs and the data thus obtained together with S. haematobium egg count data from urine assays were analysed using a combination of parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches. RESULTS: Age profiles of schistosome infection in the study population showed that infection rose to peak in childhood (11-12 years) followed by a sharp decline in infection intensity while prevalence fell more gradually. Mean infection intensity was 37 eggs/10 ml urine (SE 6.19 eggs/10 ml urine) while infection prevalence was 54.7%. Measurements of parasite-specific cytokine responses showed that IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 but not IFN-gamma followed distinct age-profiles. Parasite-specific IL-10 production developed early, peaking in the youngest age group and declining thereafter; while IL-4 and IL-5 responses were slower to develop with a later peak. High IL-10 producers were likely to be egg positive with IL-10 production increasing with increasing infection intensity. Furthermore people producing high levels of IL-10 produced little or no IL-5, suggesting that IL-10 may be involved in the regulation of IL-5 levels. IL-4 and IFN-gamma did not show a significant relationship with infection status or intensity and were positively associated with each other. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results show that the IL-10 responses develop early compared to the IL-5 response and may be down-modulating immunopathological responses that occur during the early phase of infection. The results further support current suggestions that the Th1/Th2 dichotomy does not sufficiently explain susceptibility or resistance to schistosome infection.[1]


  1. Cytokine responses to Schistosoma haematobium in a Zimbabwean population: contrasting profiles for IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 with age. Mutapi, F., Winborn, G., Midzi, N., Taylor, M., Mduluza, T., Maizels, R.M. BMC Infect. Dis. (2007) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities