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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Synergistic or Antagonistic Modulation of Oviposition Response of Two Swallowtail Butterflies, Papilio maackii and P. protenor, to Phellodendron amurense by Its Constitutive Prenylated Flavonoid, Phellamurin.

Papilio maackii females prefer a rutaceous plant, Phellodendron amurense, for oviposition, whereas another semi-sympatric Rutaceae feeder, Papilio protenor, never exploits this plant as a host in nature. However, the larvae of both species perform well on this plant in the laboratory. Phellamurin, a flavonoid present in the organic fraction from P. amurense inhibits egg laying by P. protenor. We examined whether phellamurin is involved in the differential acceptance of P. amurense by the two butterflies. The ovipositing females of P. maackii readily accepted P. amurense and a methanolic extract of the foliage, while P. protenor rejected them entirely. However, the aqueous fraction derived from the extract elicited significant oviposition responses of similar levels from the two species. Phellamurin did not induce oviposition behavior in P. protenor females. In contrast, P. maackii was stimulated to oviposit by phellamurin at concentrations exceeding 0.2%. The response was dose-dependent and reached ca. 70% at 2% phellamurin, which is approximately equivalent to its natural abundance in young leaves of P. amurense. Since the aqueous fraction was very stimulatory to both species, the combined effect of phellamurin and the aqueous fraction on oviposition was tested. The addition of phellamurin to the aqueous fraction enhanced the ovipositional activity of P. maackii, but dramatically suppressed the oviposition response of P. protenor even at 0.1% concentration. These results, taken together with those obtained from electrophysiological recordings with foretarsal chemosensilla, indicate that phellamurin acts as an oviposition stimulant for P. maackii, and as a potent deterrent for P. protenor. The results suggest that host range expansion or host shifts may be made by ovipositing females that overcome phytochemical barriers.[1]


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