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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Facial morphometrics in the identification of gene carriers of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

Roentgenographic measurements and morphometric analysis were employed in the investigation of contrasting patterns of craniofacial variation between normal individuals and those affected by X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia ( HED). The research objective was to identify and describe the facial characteristics of heterozygous gene carriers who show minor expression of the disorder. In this study of 13 HED families with 16 affected males, 12 carriers, and 12 normal individuals, affected individuals had at least 3 of the following 4 clinical signs and symptoms: a) hypodontia, b) hypohidrosis, c) hypotrichosis, and d) clinically distinct facial physiognomy. By contrast, the gene carriers manifested only one or 2 or none of the 4 clinical manifestations. In a preliminary comparison of gene carriers vs. normal individuals, we have generated 2 discriminant functions (each based on 3 facial measurements taken either from the lateral or frontal cephalograms). These 2 functions correctly diagnose 100% of the gene carriers and normal HED relatives. Facial anomalies characteristic of the gene carriers were 1) abnormally narrow and short maxillary width and palatal depth dimensions; 2) very small and retrusive malar and maxillary regions; 3) markedly reduced lower facial depth, height and width dimensions; 4) small head height, prominent forehead, and high-set orbits; 5) a generalized, symmetric reduction of the whole craniofacial complex.[1]


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