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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Canadian surgery during the French regime, 1608 to 1763.

The history of medicine in Canada, from the establishment of Quebec by Champlain in 1608 to the ceding of Canada to the British by the French at the Treaty of Paris in 1763, represents one of the most colourful periods in the history of Canadian surgery. Physicians were notable by their absence and what medicine was available in La Nouvelle France was provided almost exclusively by surgeons, or apothecaries, or individuals who posed as such. Sketches from the lives of five surgeons (Bonnerme, Giffard, Goupil, Bouchard and Sarrazin), an apothecary (Hébert) and a physician; (Gaultier), are presented to highlight various facets of medical care and the leadership role played by medical practitioners in the development of Canada during that period. In addition the study reveals the conflict between the philosophical approach of the physician and the pragmatic approach of the surgeon in 17th century France.[1]


  1. Canadian surgery during the French regime, 1608 to 1763. Macbeth, R.A. Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. (1977) [Pubmed]
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