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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Oncogenic activation of human R-ras by point mutations analogous to those of prototype H-ras oncogenes.

R-ras, K-rev-1/rap and TC21, are more closely related to prototype H-ras than any other known members of the ras superfamily. We recently isolated a mutationally activated TC21 oncogene from a human ovarian carcinoma cell line. Based upon these observations, we sought to re-examine the transforming potential of R-ras, which was reported earlier to lack transforming capacity. Mutations were introduced into the R-ras gene at codons 38 or 87, analogous to positions 12 and 61, respectively, responsible for H-ras oncogene activation. While both mutations resulted in acquisition of R-ras transforming capacity for NIH3T3 cells the position 61 was shown to be more active. Transfectants expressing either R-ras mutant formed colonies in soft agar and were tumorigenic in vivo. As has been reported for H-ras, R-ras cooperated with c-raf-1 in inducing transformation of NIH3T3 cells. These results imply interactions in R-ras and c-raf-1 signaling pathways. We observed R-ras transcripts of 4.6 and 1.2 kb ubiquitously expressed in each of a variety of tissues examined. All these findings raise the possibility that R-ras, like prototype ras genes, may be mutationally activated as an oncogene in some human malignancies.[1]


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