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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Risk of bladder tumors among benzidine workers and their serum properdin levels.

Serum properdin levels were determined for 21 benzidine operators at 6-month intervals for 2 years after termination of exposure to this carcinogen. Of this group, 7 developed bladder cancers within a 4-month period prior to the initial assay, and all 7 showed properdin levels below the median for the group as a whole. Two of the 3 workers who had had a brief exposure previously to beta-naphthylamine developed benign bladder tumors but had no malignant neoplasms up to 13 years later. The properdin assays of these 3 men remained consistently at or above the median values. No man developed a bladder tumor who was exposed less than 6 years to benzidine, even though 2 of these men showed low properdin levels. Of the 4 whose properdin levels were initially above the median but dropped below in subsequent assays, 3 developed bladder cancers 0.5, 4, and 9 years later. Only 1 man whose properdin level remained high in 1958-59 developed a bladder cancer 7 years later, and his immunologic picture may have been complicated by recovery from a larynx tumor in 1954. Recurrence of bladder tumors among the original 9 cases has occurred only among the 5 whose properdin levels remained below the median. The 1 whose ranking fell most dramatically (from 13 to 19) has had 13 recurrences in 13 years.[1]


  1. Risk of bladder tumors among benzidine workers and their serum properdin levels. Horton, A.W., Bingham, E.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
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