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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate and analogs: optimized inhibitors of neuropathy target esterase.

The relation between organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) and brain neuropathy target esterase ( NTE) inhibition is further examined in hens by structure-activity studies leading to the most potent in vitro NTE inhibitors known, which are then examined for their neuropathic effects in vivo in hens. The principal compounds studied are alkyl alkylphosphonofluoridates and dialkyl phosphorofluoridates. Potencies that exceed those of any previous inhibitors under the standard in vitro NTE assay condition are achieved with alkyl octylphosphonofluoridates (ethyl, isopropyl, 2-chloroethyl, 2-bromoethyl, 2-iodoethyl, and 3-iodopropyl), 2-iodoethyl hexylphosphonofluoridate, and dialkyl phosphorofluoridates [ethyl, nonyl; di(2-iodoethyl); di(3-iodopropyl); dipentyl]. The concentration for 50% NTE inhibition (I50) of these compounds is 0.04-0.14 nM. Thirty-eight less active analogs including aryl phosphonates and aryl phosphates give I50s of 0.27-4730 nM. For highest potency the summation of length of the alkyl and alkoxy groups on phosphorus should be 12-16 atoms (carbons, oxygens, and phosphorus) (a terminal iodo substituent in this relationship is equivalent to a propyl group). In general, the phosphonofluoridates and phosphorofluoridates are more active than analogs with leaving groups other than fluorine, i.e., phenoxy, 4-nitrophenoxy, 4-cyanophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, and 4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin. Considering the exceptional potencies of ethyl and 2-iodoethyl octylphosphonofluoridates (I50s of 0.04 and 0.09 nM, respectively), it is not surprising that at ip doses of 10-30 mg/kg they inhibit brain NTE by 82-97% 48 h after treatment. However, unexpectedly, only the ethyl but not the 2-iodoethyl compound induces OPIDN, possibly associated with the greater ease of aging for NTE inhibited with the ethyl than the 2-iodoethyl compound (as observed in vitro both spontaneously and on induction by potassium fluoride). The high potency of ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate and several analogs as NTE inhibitors suggests that they are useful probes in determining the toxicological features of this secondary lesion for organophosphorus poisoning.[1]


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