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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Evaluation of locus heterogeneity and EXT1 mutations in 34 families with hereditary multiple exostoses.

Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by growth of benign bone tumors. Three chromosomal loci have been implicated in this genetically heterogeneous disease: EXT1 at 8q24, EXT2 at 11p13, and EXT3 on 19p. EXT1 and EXT2 were recently cloned. We evaluated 34 families with EXT to estimate the proportion of disease attributable to EXT1, EXT2, and EXT3 and to investigate the spectrum of EXT1 mutations. Linkage analyses combined with heterogeneity testing provides strong evidence in favor of linkage of disease to both chromosomes 8 and 11, but does not support evidence of linkage to chromosome 19 in this data set. The 11 EXT1 exons were PCR-amplified and sequenced in all 11 isolated cases and in 20 of the 23 familial cases. Twelve different novel EXT1 mutations were detected, including 5 frame-shift deletions or insertions, 1 codon deletion, and 6 single base-pair substitutions distributed across 8 of the exons. Only 2 of the mutations were detected in more than one family. Three mutations affect sites in which alterations were previously reported. Nonchain-terminating missense mutations were identified in codons 280 and 340, both coding for conserved arginine residues. These residues may be crucial to the function of this protein. Although the prevalence of EXT has been estimated to be approximately 1/50,000 individuals, the disease has been reported to occur much more frequently in the Chamorro natives on Guam. Our detection of an EXT1 mutation in one Chamorro subject will allow investigation of a possible founder effect in this population. Combined mutational and heterogeneity analyses in this set of families with multiple exostoses suggest that 66% of our total sample, including 45% of isolated and 77% of familial cases, are attributable to abnormalities in EXT1.[1]


  1. Evaluation of locus heterogeneity and EXT1 mutations in 34 families with hereditary multiple exostoses. Raskind, W.H., Conrad, E.U., Matsushita, M., Wijsman, E.M., Wells, D.E., Chapman, N., Sandell, L.J., Wagner, M., Houck, J. Hum. Mutat. (1998) [Pubmed]
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