The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Chromosomes


Psychiatry related information on Chromosomes


High impact information on Chromosomes

  • NKR-P1 and Ly-49 are structurally related, and they are encoded by genetically linked loci in a chromosomal region, termed the NK gene complex (NKC), on distal mouse chromosome 6 [11].
  • The gld gene is located on chromosome 1; its product is also unknown [12].
  • In vivo, de novo synthesis of one strand of a telomeric repeat sequence by telomerase balances the sequence loss resulting from incomplete replication of linear chromosome ends by RNA primer-requiring DNA polymerases [13].
  • Now the three phenotypes have been shown to be due to alleles controlling the expression of three sets of VH genes all present on the same chromosome [14].
  • To elucidate the functions of evolutionarily conserved retrotransposon-derived genes in mammalian development, we produced mice that lack one of these genes, Peg10 (paternally expressed 10), which is a paternally expressed imprinted gene on mouse proximal chromosome 6 [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chromosomes


Biological context of Chromosomes

  • By immobilizing thousands of intact chromosome molecules within a polyacrylamide gel on a microscope slide and performing multiple amplifications from single molecules, we determined long-range haplotypes spanning a 153-Mb region of human chromosome 7 and found evidence of rare mitotic recombination events in human lymphocytes [21].
  • Genetic changes in skin tumor progression: correlation between presence of a mutant ras gene and loss of heterozygosity on mouse chromosome 7 [22].
  • Using the technology of metaphase chromosome transfer, evidence has been obtained in CHO cells that genes controlling enzymes in a common pathway in folate metabolism are closely linked [23].
  • ATP activates dnaA protein in initiating replication of plasmids bearing the origin of the E. coli chromosome [24].
  • The non-P sequences in this clone (lambda DmRpII-1) hybridize to polytene chromosome band region 10C, the cytogenetic location of RpIIC4, and revertants which lose the lethal RNA polymerase II mutation also lose P element sequences from the locus [25].

Anatomical context of Chromosomes


Associations of Chromosomes with chemical compounds


Gene context of Chromosomes

  • The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA onto chromosome ends [35].
  • Usually, CMT1A is caused by the duplication of a 1.5-megabase (Mb) region on chromosome 17p11.2-p12 containing PMP22 [36].
  • A chimaeric protein is synthesized from one of the derivative chromosomes that contains the N terminus of the AML1 transcription factor, including its DNA-binding domain, fused to most of ETO, a protein of unknown function [37].
  • An earlier age at onset has also been demonstrated in familial AD patients with mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene (APP717 and APP670/671)13 carrying the APOE epsilon-4 allele compared to those who do not, but not in familial AD patients with APP692 or 693 mutations, or in chromosome 14-linked familial AD patients [38].
  • The complete BRCA2 gene and mutations in chromosome 13q-linked kindreds [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chromosomes


  1. Mutants in transmission of chemotactic signals from two independent receptors of E. coli. Hazelbauer, G.L., Harayama, S. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Variation of risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with different germline mutations of the BRCA2 gene. Gayther, S.A., Mangion, J., Russell, P., Seal, S., Barfoot, R., Ponder, B.A., Stratton, M.R., Easton, D. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutations of the E-cadherin gene in human gynecologic cancers. Risinger, J.I., Berchuck, A., Kohler, M.F., Boyd, J. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Amyloid A4 protein and its precursor in Down's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. Rumble, B., Retallack, R., Hilbich, C., Simms, G., Multhaup, G., Martins, R., Hockey, A., Montgomery, P., Beyreuther, K., Masters, C.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Alterations in the PITSLRE protein kinase gene complex on chromosome 1p36 in childhood neuroblastoma. Lahti, J.M., Valentine, M., Xiang, J., Jones, B., Amann, J., Grenet, J., Richmond, G., Look, A.T., Kidd, V.J. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Presenile dementia and cerebral haemorrhage linked to a mutation at codon 692 of the beta-amyloid precursor protein gene. Hendriks, L., van Duijn, C.M., Cras, P., Cruts, M., Van Hul, W., van Harskamp, F., Warren, A., McInnis, M.G., Antonarakis, S.E., Martin, J.J. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel maternally expressed gene, ATP10C, encodes a putative aminophospholipid translocase associated with Angelman syndrome. Meguro, M., Kashiwagi, A., Mitsuya, K., Nakao, M., Kondo, I., Saitoh, S., Oshimura, M. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome contig spanning the Huntington's disease gene candidate region. Bates, G.P., Valdes, J., Hummerich, H., Baxendale, S., Le Paslier, D.L., Monaco, A.P., Tagle, D., MacDonald, M.E., Altherr, M., Ross, M. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Variation of apolipoprotein-B gene is associated with obesity, high blood cholesterol levels, and increased risk of coronary heart disease. Rajput-Williams, J., Knott, T.J., Wallis, S.C., Sweetnam, P., Yarnell, J., Cox, N., Bell, G.I., Miller, N.E., Scott, J. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence for linkage of bipolar disorder to chromosome 18 with a parent-of-origin effect. Stine, O.C., Xu, J., Koskela, R., McMahon, F.J., Gschwend, M., Friddle, C., Clark, C.D., McInnis, M.G., Simpson, S.G., Breschel, T.S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. The Ly-49 and NKR-P1 gene families encoding lectin-like receptors on natural killer cells: the NK gene complex. Yokoyama, W.M., Seaman, W.E. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Lpr and gld: single gene models of systemic autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative disease. Cohen, P.L., Eisenberg, R.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Ciliate telomerase biochemistry. Collins, K. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The biological origin of antibody diversity. Williamson, A.R. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Deletion of Peg10, an imprinted gene acquired from a retrotransposon, causes early embryonic lethality. Ono, R., Nakamura, K., Inoue, K., Naruse, M., Usami, T., Wakisaka-Saito, N., Hino, T., Suzuki-Migishima, R., Ogonuki, N., Miki, H., Kohda, T., Ogura, A., Yokoyama, M., Kaneko-Ishino, T., Ishino, F. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Activity of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in the blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the Philadelphia chromosome. Druker, B.J., Sawyers, C.L., Kantarjian, H., Resta, D.J., Reese, S.F., Ford, J.M., Capdeville, R., Talpaz, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Correlation of clinical findings with quinacrine-banded chromosomes in 90 adults with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: an eight-year study (1970-1977). Golomb, H.M., Vardiman, J.W., Rowley, J.D., Testa, J.R., Mintz, U. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Satellite DNA in large marker chromosomes of methotrexate-resistant mouse cells. Bostock, C.J., Clark, E.M. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Mutations in the mu heavy-chain gene in patients with agammaglobulinemia. Yel, L., Minegishi, Y., Coustan-Smith, E., Buckley, R.H., Trübel, H., Pachman, L.M., Kitchingman, G.R., Campana, D., Rohrer, J., Conley, M.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Mobility of histones on the chromosome of simian virus 40. Beard, P. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Long-range polony haplotyping of individual human chromosome molecules. Zhang, K., Zhu, J., Shendure, J., Porreca, G.J., Aach, J.D., Mitra, R.D., Church, G.M. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Genetic changes in skin tumor progression: correlation between presence of a mutant ras gene and loss of heterozygosity on mouse chromosome 7. Bremner, R., Balmain, A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Linkage of markers controlling consecutive biochemical steps in CHO cells as demonstrated by chromosome transfer. Spandidos, D.A., Siminovitch, L. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. ATP activates dnaA protein in initiating replication of plasmids bearing the origin of the E. coli chromosome. Sekimizu, K., Bramhill, D., Kornberg, A. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular cloning of sequences from a Drosophila RNA polymerase II locus by P element transposon tagging. Searles, L.L., Jokerst, R.S., Bingham, P.M., Voelker, R.A., Greenleaf, A.L. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Arginine-rich histones do not exchange between human and mouse chromosomes in hybrid cells. Manser, T., Thacher, T., Rechsteiner, M. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. The FHIT gene, spanning the chromosome 3p14.2 fragile site and renal carcinoma-associated t(3;8) breakpoint, is abnormal in digestive tract cancers. Ohta, M., Inoue, H., Cotticelli, M.G., Kastury, K., Baffa, R., Palazzo, J., Siprashvili, Z., Mori, M., McCue, P., Druck, T., Croce, C.M., Huebner, K. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. SLC7A7, encoding a putative permease-related protein, is mutated in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance. Borsani, G., Bassi, M.T., Sperandeo, M.P., De Grandi, A., Buoninconti, A., Riboni, M., Manzoni, M., Incerti, B., Pepe, A., Andria, G., Ballabio, A., Sebastio, G. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. A genetic analysis of extinction: trans-dominant loci regulate expression of liver-specific traits in hepatoma hybrid cells. Killary, A.M., Fournier, R.E. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Human CLASP1 is an outer kinetochore component that regulates spindle microtubule dynamics. Maiato, H., Fairley, E.A., Rieder, C.L., Swedlow, J.R., Sunkel, C.E., Earnshaw, W.C. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Phosphorylation of histone H3 is required for proper chromosome condensation and segregation. Wei, Y., Yu, L., Bowen, J., Gorovsky, M.A., Allis, C.D. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of Cd36 (Fat) as an insulin-resistance gene causing defective fatty acid and glucose metabolism in hypertensive rats. Aitman, T.J., Glazier, A.M., Wallace, C.A., Cooper, L.D., Norsworthy, P.J., Wahid, F.N., Al-Majali, K.M., Trembling, P.M., Mann, C.J., Shoulders, C.C., Graf, D., St Lezin, E., Kurtz, T.W., Kren, V., Pravenec, M., Ibrahimi, A., Abumrad, N.A., Stanton, L.W., Scott, J. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Fusion of PDGF receptor beta to a novel ets-like gene, tel, in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with t(5;12) chromosomal translocation. Golub, T.R., Barker, G.F., Lovett, M., Gilliland, D.G. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. A gene encoding a liver-specific ABC transporter is mutated in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Strautnieks, S.S., Bull, L.N., Knisely, A.S., Kocoshis, S.A., Dahl, N., Arnell, H., Sokal, E., Dahan, K., Childs, S., Ling, V., Tanner, M.S., Kagalwalla, A.F., Németh, A., Pawlowska, J., Baker, A., Mieli-Vergani, G., Freimer, N.B., Gardiner, R.M., Thompson, R.J. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Severe growth defect in mouse cells lacking the telomerase RNA component. Niida, H., Matsumoto, T., Satoh, H., Shiwa, M., Tokutake, Y., Furuichi, Y., Shinkai, Y. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Evidence for a recessive PMP22 point mutation in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Roa, B.B., Garcia, C.A., Pentao, L., Killian, J.M., Trask, B.J., Suter, U., Snipes, G.J., Ortiz-Lopez, R., Shooter, E.M., Patel, P.I., Lupski, J.R. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Embryonic lethality and impairment of haematopoiesis in mice heterozygous for an AML1-ETO fusion gene. Yergeau, D.A., Hetherington, C.J., Wang, Q., Zhang, P., Sharpe, A.H., Binder, M., Marín-Padilla, M., Tenen, D.G., Speck, N.A., Zhang, D.E. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Genetic association of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor gene with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Okuizumi, K., Onodera, O., Namba, Y., Ikeda, K., Yamamoto, T., Seki, K., Ueki, A., Nanko, S., Tanaka, H., Takahashi, H., Oyanagi, K., Mizusawa, H., Kanazawa, I., Tsuji, S. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. The complete BRCA2 gene and mutations in chromosome 13q-linked kindreds. Tavtigian, S.V., Simard, J., Rommens, J., Couch, F., Shattuck-Eidens, D., Neuhausen, S., Merajver, S., Thorlacius, S., Offit, K., Stoppa-Lyonnet, D., Belanger, C., Bell, R., Berry, S., Bogden, R., Chen, Q., Davis, T., Dumont, M., Frye, C., Hattier, T., Jammulapati, S., Janecki, T., Jiang, P., Kehrer, R., Leblanc, J.F., Mitchell, J.T., McArthur-Morrison, J., Nguyen, K., Peng, Y., Samson, C., Schroeder, M., Snyder, S.C., Steele, L., Stringfellow, M., Stroup, C., Swedlund, B., Swense, J., Teng, D., Thomas, A., Tran, T., Tranchant, M., Weaver-Feldhaus, J., Wong, A.K., Shizuya, H., Eyfjord, J.E., Cannon-Albright, L., Tranchant, M., Labrie, F., Skolnick, M.H., Weber, B., Kamb, A., Goldgar, D.E. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. A DNA segment from D. melanogaster which contains five tandemly repeating units homologous to the major rDNA insertion. Kidd, S.J., Glover, D.M. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  41. Targeted and natural (piebald-lethal) mutations of endothelin-B receptor gene produce megacolon associated with spotted coat color in mice. Hosoda, K., Hammer, R.E., Richardson, J.A., Baynash, A.G., Cheung, J.C., Giaid, A., Yanagisawa, M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  42. Identification of PAHX, a Refsum disease gene. Mihalik, S.J., Morrell, J.C., Kim, D., Sacksteder, K.A., Watkins, P.A., Gould, S.J. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  43. A genetic linkage map of the Syrian hamster and localization of cardiomyopathy locus on chromosome 9qa2.1-b1 using RLGS spot-mapping. Okazaki, Y., Okuizumi, H., Ohsumi, T., Nomura, O., Takada, S., Kamiya, M., Sasaki, N., Matsuda, Y., Nishimura, M., Tagaya, O., Muramatsu, M., Hayashizaki, Y. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  44. Gene mapping within the T/t complex of the mouse. III: t-Lethal genes are arranged in three clusters on chromosome 17. Artzt, K. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities