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Gene Review

CLV3  -  protein CLAVATA 3

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: AtCLV3, CLAVATA3, F12K2.17, F12K2_17
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High impact information on CLV3

  • Our analysis of the interactions between these key regulators indicates that (1) the CLV genes repress WUS at the transcript level and that (2) WUS expression is sufficient to induce meristem cell identity and the expression of the stem cell marker CLV3 [1].
  • CLV1 negatively regulates formation of the shoot and floral meristems through cell-cell communication involving the CLV3 peptide [2].
  • Dependence of stem cell fate in Arabidopsis on a feedback loop regulated by CLV3 activity [3].
  • Recent studies in Arabidopsis have identified factors that contribute to meristem structure and identity, such as CLAVATA1, CLAVATA3, and SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, which act in both shoot and flower meristems, as well as LEAFY and APETALA1 which specifically determine a floral fate [4].
  • Moreover, the effects of CLV3 overexpression that result in the elimination of SAM activity were abolished in the shd mutant, indicating that CLV function is dependent on SHD function [5].

Biological context of CLV3

  • Here, we show that in vitro application of synthetic 14-amino acid peptides, CLV3p, CLE19p, and CLE40p, corresponding to the conserved CLE motif, mimics the overexpression phenotype [6].
  • Genetic analysis indicates that CLV1, which encodes a receptor kinase, acts with CLV3 to control the balance between meristem cell proliferation and differentiation [7].
  • Whereas cna single mutant plants exhibit subtle defects in meristem development, clv cna double mutants develop massively enlarged apices that display early loss of organogenesis, misexpression of WUS and CLV3, and eventual differentiation of the entire apex [8].
  • Homeostasis of the stem cell population may be achieved through feedback regulation, whereby changes in stem cell number result in corresponding changes in CLV3 expression levels, and adjustment of WUS expression via the CLV signal transduction pathway [9].
  • We show here that CLV3 restricts its own domain of expression (the CZ) by preventing differentiation of peripheral zone cells (PZ), which surround the CZ, into CZ cells and restricts overall SAM size by a separate, long-range effect on cell division rate [10].

Anatomical context of CLV3

  • While CLV3 transcripts are confined to stem cells of the shoot system, CLE40 is expressed at low levels in all tissues, including roots [11].

Associations of CLV3 with chemical compounds

  • A hydroxyl 12-amino acid peptide derived from the conserved CLE motif of CLV3 promotes cell differentiation, whereas another CLE-derived peptide suppresses the differentiation [12].
  • Despite the fact that structural features of LRR-RKs are fairy similar, five available ligand molecules for LRR-RKs are structurally diverse, from steroids (brassinolides) to peptides (phytosulfokine and systemin) and secreted proteins (CLV3) [13].
  • A bioassay of single-cell transdifferentation demonstrates that a dodecapeptide with two hydroxyproline residues is the functional product of genes from the CLE family, which includes CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis [14].

Physical interactions of CLV3

  • More than 75% of CLV3 in cauliflower extracts is bound with CLV1, consistent with hypotheses of ligand sequestration [15].

Regulatory relationships of CLV3

  • In accordance with this decrease in meristem size, application of CLV3p to in vitro-grown clv3 seedlings restricts the expression of the stem cell-promoting transcription factor WUSCHEL [16].
  • CLV3 acts nonautonomously in meristems and is expressed at the meristem surface overlying the CLV1 domain [7].

Other interactions of CLV3

  • The 14-amino acid CLV3, CLE19, and CLE40 peptides trigger consumption of the root meristem in Arabidopsis through a CLAVATA2-dependent pathway [6].
  • The 14-amino acid CLE41, CLE42, CLE43 and CLE44 peptides trigger the proliferation of procambial cells in vascular tissues [17]
  • In other cases, minor QTLs for floral organ number (lcn2.2) and (stn11.2) co-localized with a CLV1 paralog and with the syntenic region containing the CLV3 gene in Arabidopsis, respectively [18].
  • A recent study on CLV3 shows that the CLV3/ESR (CLE) motif, together with the adjacent C-terminal sequence, is sufficient to execute CLV3 function when fused behind an N-terminal sequence of ERECTA [16].
  • Other components of the CLV1 signaling pathway include the secreted putative ligand CLV3 and the receptor-like protein CLV2 [19].
  • The root meristem also contains a stem cell organizer, and here we show that localized overexpression in roots of CLE19, encoding a CLV3 homolog, restricts the size of the root meristem [20].
  • CLE induced procambial cell proliferation is regulated by the phytohormone auxin [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CLV3




  1. The stem cell population of Arabidopsis shoot meristems in maintained by a regulatory loop between the CLAVATA and WUSCHEL genes. Schoof, H., Lenhard, M., Haecker, A., Mayer, K.F., Jürgens, G., Laux, T. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. HAR1 mediates systemic regulation of symbiotic organ development. Nishimura, R., Hayashi, M., Wu, G.J., Kouchi, H., Imaizumi-Anraku, H., Murakami, Y., Kawasaki, S., Akao, S., Ohmori, M., Nagasawa, M., Harada, K., Kawaguchi, M. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Dependence of stem cell fate in Arabidopsis on a feedback loop regulated by CLV3 activity. Brand, U., Fletcher, J.C., Hobe, M., Meyerowitz, E.M., Simon, R. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Genetic control of shoot and flower meristem behavior. Liljegren, S.J., Yanofsky, M.F. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. SHEPHERD is the Arabidopsis GRP94 responsible for the formation of functional CLAVATA proteins. Ishiguro, S., Watanabe, Y., Ito, N., Nonaka, H., Takeda, N., Sakai, T., Kanaya, H., Okada, K. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The 14-amino acid CLV3, CLE19, and CLE40 peptides trigger consumption of the root meristem in Arabidopsis through a CLAVATA2-dependent pathway. Fiers, M., Golemiec, E., Xu, J., van der Geest, L., Heidstra, R., Stiekema, W., Liu, C.M. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Signaling of cell fate decisions by CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis shoot meristems. Fletcher, J.C., Brand, U., Running, M.P., Simon, R., Meyerowitz, E.M. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. CORONA, a member of the class III homeodomain leucine zipper gene family in Arabidopsis, regulates stem cell specification and organogenesis. Green, K.A., Prigge, M.J., Katzman, R.B., Clark, S.E. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of CLV3 expression by two homeobox genes in Arabidopsis. Brand, U., Grünewald, M., Hobe, M., Simon, R. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Stem-cell homeostasis and growth dynamics can be uncoupled in the Arabidopsis shoot apex. Reddy, G.V., Meyerowitz, E.M. Science (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Loss of CLE40, a protein functionally equivalent to the stem cell restricting signal CLV3, enhances root waving in Arabidopsis. Hobe, M., Müller, R., Grünewald, M., Brand, U., Simon, R. Dev. Genes Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. CLE peptide ligands and their roles in establishing meristems. Fiers, M., Ku, K.L., Liu, C.M. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases in plants: structure, function, and signal transduction pathways. Torii, K.U. Int. Rev. Cytol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Dodeca-CLE peptides as suppressors of plant stem cell differentiation. Ito, Y., Nakanomyo, I., Motose, H., Iwamoto, K., Sawa, S., Dohmae, N., Fukuda, H. Science (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. CLAVATA3, a multimeric ligand for the CLAVATA1 receptor-kinase. Trotochaud, A.E., Jeong, S., Clark, S.E. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. The CLAVATA3/ESR motif of CLAVATA3 is functionally independent from the nonconserved flanking sequences. Fiers, M., Golemiec, E., van der Schors, R., van der Geest, L., Li, K.W., Stiekema, W.J., Liu, C.M. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Plant CLE peptides from two distinct functional classes synergistically induce division of vascular cells. Whitford, R., Fernandez, A., De Groodt, R., Ortega, E., Hilson, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2008) [Pubmed]
  18. Developmental characterization of the fasciated locus and mapping of Arabidopsis candidate genes involved in the control of floral meristem size and carpel number in tomato. Barrero, L.S., Cong, B., Wu, F., Tanksley, S.D. Genome (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. CLAVATA1 dominant-negative alleles reveal functional overlap between multiple receptor kinases that regulate meristem and organ development. Diévart, A., Dalal, M., Tax, F.E., Lacey, A.D., Huttly, A., Li, J., Clark, S.E. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Root-specific CLE19 overexpression and the sol1/2 suppressors implicate a CLV-like pathway in the control of Arabidopsis root meristem maintenance. Casamitjana-Martínez, E., Hofhuis, H.F., Xu, J., Liu, C.M., Heidstra, R., Scheres, B. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Conservation and Diversification of Meristem Maintenance Mechanism in Oryza sativa: Function of the FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 Gene. Suzaki, T., Toriba, T., Fujimoto, M., Tsutsumi, N., Kitano, H., Hirano, H.Y. Plant Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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