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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of cysteine-82 in the catalytic mechanism of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase.

S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is a pyruvate-dependent enzyme. The enzyme forms a Schiff base with substrate, S-adenosylmethionine, through the pyruvoyl moiety. This facilitates the release of CO2 from the substrate, which must then be protonated on the alpha carbon in order to permit hydrolysis of the Schiff base to release the product. The catalytic mechanism of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was investigated via mutagenic and kinetic approaches. The results of enzyme kinetic studies indicated that Cys-82 is a crucial residue for activity and this residue has a basic pKa. Iodoacetic acid inhibited wild-type enzyme activity in a time- and pH-dependent manner but did not affect the already reduced activity of mutant C82A. Reaction of this mutant with iodoacetic acid led to approximately one less mole of reagent being incorporated per mole of enzyme alphabeta dimer than with wild-type S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Both wild-type and C82A mutant S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases were inactivated by substrate-mediated transamination, but this reaction occurred much more frequently with C82A than with wild-type enzyme. A major proportion of the recombinant C82A mutant protein was in the transaminated form in which the pyruvoyl cofactor is converted into alanine. This suggests that incorrect protonation of the pyruvate, rather than the substrate, occurs much more readily when Cys-82 is altered. On the basis of these results, it was postulated that residue Cys-82 may be the proton donor of the decarboxylation reaction catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase.[1]


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