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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Non-invasive assessment of ocular pharmacokinetics using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy.

A Laser Scanning Confocal Raman Spectroscopy (LSCRS) system was applied for the non-invasive quantification of the transport of a drug through the rabbit cornea in vivo. Employing LSCRS, the changes in the amplitude of a drug-specific Raman signal were assessed over time in the tearfilm and corneal epithelium of the living rabbit eye (n = 6), after topical application of 25 microL Trusopt 2%. This allowed for quantification of pharmacokinetic variables. The effect of the drug on corneal hydration was also monitored. LSCRS demonstrated adequate sensitivity and reproducibility, for continuous real-time monitoring of the Trusopt concentration. Each concentration-time curve had a bi-phasic trend; the rapid initial phase (t<8 min.) corresponds to the nonproductive losses of Trusopt from the tears (k10 = 0.24+/-0.04 min(-1), and the slower later phase (t>20 min.) is the result of transfer of the drug from the corneal epithelium to the stroma (k23 = 0.0047+/-0.0004 min(-1). Drug absorption into the corneal epithelium occurred at a rate of k12 = 0.034+/-0.006 min(-1). Trusopt caused an acute dehydrating effect, with a maximum decrease in corneal hydration of approximately 15% at approximately 60 min. following application of the drug. LSCRS has the specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility and spatial resolution for employment as a potentially valuable tool for the study of ocular pharmacokinetics.[1]


  1. Non-invasive assessment of ocular pharmacokinetics using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy. Bauer, N.J., Motamedi, M., Wicksted, J.P., March, W.F., Webers, C.A., Hendrikse, F. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (1999) [Pubmed]
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