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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Distal biceps ruptures. A followup of Boyd and Anderson repair.

Twenty-one distal biceps ruptures in 20 patients were treated during a 10-year period. All patients were men with an average age of 47 years (range, 37-70 years). Long term results (average, 44 months) were assessed using the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand outcomes questionnaire, isokinetic testing of elbow flexion and supination (strength and endurance), and patient satisfaction. Measurements of range of motion revealed diminished forearm rotation in four of 21 (19%) elbows and diminished flexion in one of 21 (5%). Isokinetic testing revealed 10 of 21 (48%) elbows had weakness of supination versus three of 21 (14%) for flexion. Deficits in endurance included eight of 21 (38%) elbows for supination and seven of 21 (33%) for flexion. Seven complications occurred in seven patients for a 35% complication rate. Heterotopic ossification was the most common complication, occurring in three patients. One of these patients also had a synostosis. All patients completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand outcomes questionnaire. Twelve patients had an excellent outcome, eight had a good outcome, and no patient had a fair or poor outcome. These results correlated closely with the patients' own subjective assessments of their satisfaction with the procedure. Despite diminished strength and endurance and a high rate of complications, patient satisfaction was excellent and functional outcome was good.[1]


  1. Distal biceps ruptures. A followup of Boyd and Anderson repair. Karunakar, M.A., Cha, P., Stern, P.J. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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