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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome and amelogenesis imperfecta with taurodontism are genetically distinct conditions.

Amelogenesis imperfecta of the hypomaturation-hypoplasia type with taurodontism (AIHHT) is inherited as a highly penetrant autosomal dominant trait. These dental findings are similar to those of another autosomal dominant condition, the tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO), from which AIHHT differs primarily by lack of changes in the hair and bones. TDO is characterized by a highly variable clinical phenotype. While enamel hypoplasia and taurodontism appear to be present in all TDO cases, non-dental features may be absent, with approximately half of TDO cases losing the kinky/curly hair phenotype seen in infancy by adolescence, and in almost 20% of cases, osseous changes are not evident. The genetic basis for AIHHT is unknown and it has been questioned whether AIHHT and TDO are separate conditions or a spectrum of disease. The genetic basis for TDO has recently been identified as a deletion mutation in the distal-less 3 (DLX3) transcription factor gene. To determine if AIHHT and TDO represent variable expression of a common DLX3 gene mutation, allelic mutations of the DLX3 gene, or mutations in DLX7 (the linked paralogue to DLX3 on chromosome 17), we have performed mutational analysis and sequencing studies of the DLX3 and DLX7 genes in three individuals (two affected and one unaffected) from a family with AIHHT. Results of the analysis demonstrate that AIHHT and TDO are not due to a common DLX3 gene mutation. Sequence analyses of the DLX3 and DLX7 genes suggest AIHHT is not due to genetic mutations or polymorphisms in the exons of these genes. These results suggest that AI-HHT and TDO are two genetically distinct conditions.[1]


  1. Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome and amelogenesis imperfecta with taurodontism are genetically distinct conditions. Price, J.A., Wright, J.T., Walker, S.J., Crawford, P.J., Aldred, M.J., Hart, T.C. Clin. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
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