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Gene Review

DLX3  -  distal-less homeobox 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AI4, Homeobox protein DLX-3, TDO
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Disease relevance of DLX3


High impact information on DLX3

  • In this paper we describe genomic cloning and sequencing of both human DLX3 and DLX7 and identification of a 4 bp deletion in human DLX3 which correlates with the TDO phenotype in six families [5].
  • Small interfering RNA knockdown studies in osteoblasts validate that DLX3 is a potent regulator of Runx2 [6].
  • Here we show that BMP2 induces DLX3, a homeodomain protein that activates Runx2 gene transcription [6].
  • Immunocytochemical and immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate overlapping nuclear localization and physical interaction between Dlx3 and Smad6 in human choriocarcinoma cells and in differentiated trophoblasts from human placenta [7].
  • Smad6 appears to play a modulatory role in the regulation of Dlx3-dependent gene transcription within placental trophoblasts [7].

Biological context of DLX3


Anatomical context of DLX3

  • A 5' deletion series of the Dlx3 promoter revealed that a 13-nucleotide CCAAT box-containing element was required for basal expression in choriocarcinoma cell lines [3].
  • As demonstrated for differentiation-specific granular markers, Dlx3 is activated in primary mouse keratinocytes cultured in vitro by increasing the level of the extracellular Ca(2+) [11].
  • Like in bone marrow-derived stem cells, DLX-3 gene expression was increased in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation but similar to control cultures [12].
  • Second, we present evidence for a role for murine Dlx3 in the development of the branchial arches [13].
  • Dlx3 and p63 act as part of the transcriptional regulatory pathways relevant in ectoderm derivatives, and autosomal mutations in either of these genes are associated with human EDs [4].

Other interactions of DLX3

  • Recent reports involve kallikrein-4 (KLK4), MMP-20, and DLX3 genes in the etiologies of some cases [14].
  • Conclusive evidence for linkage of DGI was obtained to genetic markers on chromosome 17q21-q22 (DLX-3, Z(max) = 5.34, theta = 0.00) [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DLX3


  1. DLX genes as targets of ALL-1: DLX 2,3,4 down-regulation in t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Ferrari, N., Palmisano, G.L., Paleari, L., Basso, G., Mangioni, M., Fidanza, V., Albini, A., Croce, C.M., Levi, G., Brigati, C. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcriptional activation by the homeodomain protein distal-less 3. Feledy, J.A., Morasso, M.I., Jang, S.I., Sargent, T.D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. A role for CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta in the basal regulation of the distal-less 3 gene promoter in placental cells. Holland, M.P., Bliss, S.P., Berghorn, K.A., Roberson, M.S. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Homeobox gene Dlx3 is regulated by p63 during ectoderm development: relevance in the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias. Radoja, N., Guerrini, L., Lo Iacono, N., Merlo, G.R., Costanzo, A., Weinberg, W.C., La Mantia, G., Calabr??, V., Morasso, M.I. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a mutation in DLX3 associated with tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome. Price, J.A., Bowden, D.W., Wright, J.T., Pettenati, M.J., Hart, T.C. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. BMP2 Commitment to the Osteogenic Lineage Involves Activation of Runx2 by DLX3 and a Homeodomain Transcriptional Network. Hassan, M.Q., Tare, R.S., Lee, S.H., Mandeville, M., Morasso, M.I., Javed, A., van Wijnen, A.J., Stein, J.L., Stein, G.S., Lian, J.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Smad6 represses Dlx3 transcriptional activity through inhibition of DNA binding. Berghorn, K.A., Clark-Campbell, P.A., Han, L., McGrattan, M., Weiss, R.S., Roberson, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and identification of homeobox genes from the human placenta including a novel member of the Distal-less family, DLX4. Quinn, L.M., Johnson, B.V., Nicholl, J., Sutherland, G.R., Kalionis, B. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased bone density associated with DLX3 mutation in the tricho-dento-osseous syndrome. Haldeman, R.J., Cooper, L.F., Hart, T.C., Phillips, C., Boyd, C., Lester, G.E., Wright, J.T. Bone (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. DLX3 mutation associated with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta with taurodontism. Dong, J., Amor, D., Aldred, M.J., Gu, T., Escamilla, M., MacDougall, M. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Phosphorylation of murine homeodomain protein Dlx3 by protein kinase C. Park, G.T., Denning, M.F., Morasso, M.I. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Gene expression of runx2, Osterix, c-fos, DLX-3, DLX-5, and MSX-2 in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Morsczeck, C. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Reassessing the Dlx code: the genetic regulation of branchial arch skeletal pattern and development. Depew, M.J., Simpson, C.A., Morasso, M., Rubenstein, J.L. J. Anat. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Genes and related proteins involved in amelogenesis imperfecta. Stephanopoulos, G., Garefalaki, M.E., Lyroudia, K. J. Dent. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Novel COL1A1 mutation (G559C) [correction of G599C] associated with mild osteogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta. Pallos, D., Hart, P.S., Cortelli, J.R., Vian, S., Wright, J.T., Korkko, J., Brunoni, D., Hart, T.C. Arch. Oral Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome and amelogenesis imperfecta with taurodontism are genetically distinct conditions. Price, J.A., Wright, J.T., Walker, S.J., Crawford, P.J., Aldred, M.J., Hart, T.C. Clin. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
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