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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

TATA-Binding protein-interacting protein 120, TIP120, stimulates three classes of eukaryotic transcription via a unique mechanism.

We previously identified a novel TATA-binding protein (TBP)-interacting protein (TIP120) from the rat liver. Here, in an RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-reconstituted transcription system, we demonstrate that recombinant TIP120 activates the basal level of transcription from various kinds of promoters regardless of the template DNA topology and the presence of TFIIE/ TFIIH and TBP-associated factors. Deletion analysis demonstrated that a 412-residue N-terminal domain, which includes an acidic region and the TBP-binding domain, is required for TIP120 function. Kinetic studies suggest that TIP120 functions during preinitiation complex (PIC) formation at the step of RNAP II/ TFIIF recruitment to the promoter but not after the completion of PIC formation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that TIP120 enhanced PIC formation, and TIP120 also stimulated the nonspecific transcription and DNA-binding activity of RNAP II. These lines of evidence suggest that TIP120 is able to activate basal transcription by overcoming a kinetic impediment to RNAP II/ TFIIF integration into the TBP (TFIID)-TFIIB-DNA-complex. Interestingly, TIP120 also stimulates RNAP I- and III-driven transcription and binds to RPB5, one of the common subunits of the eukaryotic RNA polymerases, in vitro. Furthermore, in mouse cells, ectopically expressed TIP120 enhances transcription from all three classes (I, II, and III) of promoters. We propose that TIP120 globally regulates transcription through interaction with basal transcription mechanisms common to all three transcription systems.[1]


  1. TATA-Binding protein-interacting protein 120, TIP120, stimulates three classes of eukaryotic transcription via a unique mechanism. Makino, Y., Yogosawa, S., Kayukawa, K., Coin, F., Egly, J.M., Wang, Z., Roeder, R.G., Yamamoto, K., Muramatsu, M., Tamura, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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