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Gene Review

ERVK2  -  endogenous retroviral sequence K(C4), 2

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of ERVK2


Psychiatry related information on ERVK2


High impact information on ERVK2


Chemical compound and disease context of ERVK2


Biological context of ERVK2

  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A sensitive methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was used to evaluate 14-3-3sigma methylation status in pretreatment serum DNA obtained from 115 cisplatin-plus-gemcitabine-treated advanced NSCLC patients [20].
  • No correlation was observed between the degree of genetic complexity of HCV (indicated by the number of bands in the SSCP assay) and patient age, serum alanine aminotransferase activity, or serum HCV-RNA concentration, measured by competitive polymerase chain reaction [21].
  • To address these questions, stored mucin in the epithelium and goblet cell size and number were measured morphometrically, and mucin gene expression was measured by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in endobronchial biopsies from 13 subjects with mild and moderate asthma and from 12 healthy control subjects [22].
  • In nonmuscle tissues (brain, liver, kidney, lung), the transgene expression was extremely low even though in these tissues in situ polymerase chain reaction showed as high an infectivity of the cells by the AV as in muscle [23].
  • 5A/6A genotype in the stromelysin-1 promoter was determined using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing [24].

Anatomical context of ERVK2


Associations of ERVK2 with chemical compounds

  • This polypeptide co-sediments with polymerase activity through a glycerol gradient [30].
  • The MICA transmembrane polymorphism in exon 5 was analyzed after biotin-labeled polymerase chain reaction products were loaded onto sequencing gels and subjected to autoradiography [31].
  • Genetic analysis of the resistant isolates showed that each contained a well-known ganciclovir resistance mutation in the viral UL97 phosphotransferase sequence, as well as a mutation (Ala to Val at codon 809, V809) in conserved region III of the DNA polymerase (Pol) sequence [15].
  • The detection limit of the LC assay was determined with 10-fold dilutions of plasmid pS4 with the SalI restriction fragment of the DNA polymerase gene and with the First European Union Concerted Action HSV Proficiency Panel [32].
  • Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, while genotypes of the MTHFR C677T mutation were determined by polymerase chain reaction [33].

Physical interactions of ERVK2

  • The purified fraction has no significant endonuclease activity, but a strong exonuclease activity co-purifies with polymerase activity through every step in the isolation [30].
  • We show that XPG interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in the cell and binds stalled RNAPII ternary complexes in vitro both independently and cooperatively with CSB [34].
  • Knockdown of p50 expression with specific small hairpin RNAs reduces HDAC1 binding to the latent HIV LTR and induces RNA polymerase II recruitment [35].
  • We show here that WRN functionally interacts with DNA polymerase delta (pol delta), a eukaryotic polymerase required for DNA replication and DNA repair [36].
  • The TFIIIC90 subunit of TFIIIC interacts with multiple components of the RNA polymerase III machinery and contains a histone-specific acetyltransferase activity [37].

Enzymatic interactions of ERVK2

  • In addition, antibodies raised against the 40-kDa subunit abolished the A1- and PCNA-dependent synthesis of DNA catalyzed by polymerase delta [38].
  • CDK9 is able to hyperphosphorylate the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase during elongation [39].
  • Both Cdk9 and cyclin T1 showed only limited colocalization with different phosphorylated forms of RNA polymerase II [40].
  • Phosphorylation was carried out using immobilized Cdc2 so that the kinase could be removed from the phosphorylated polymerase [41].
  • In this study we demonstrated that a set of cellular cofactors that modulate the binding of the cellular protein TRP-185 to the TAR RNA loop sequences also functioned to markedly stimulate the specific binding of hypophosphorylated (IIa) and hyperphosphorylated (IIo) RNA polymerase II to TAR RNA [42].

Co-localisations of ERVK2


Regulatory relationships of ERVK2

  • Recombinant PCNA stimulated human DNA polymerase delta activity at least 25-fold with poly(dA)/oligo-(dT) as the template [48].
  • In this study, we have determined the somatostatin receptor subtypes expressed in various endocrine tumors using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method [49].
  • Experiments in which activators were exchanged between initiation and elongation demonstrate that the elongation function of HSF1 will stimulate RNA polymerase that has initiated and is transcriptionally engaged [50].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: AMPD1 genotype was determined in 132 patients with advanced CHF and 91 control reference subjects by use of a polymerase chain reaction-based, allele-specific oligonucleotide detection assay [51].
  • Here, we show for the first time that both UBF1 and UBF2 activate RNA polymerase II-regulated promoters [52].

Other interactions of ERVK2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ERVK2


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  2. Clinical presentation and outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in Malawian children. Graham, S.M., Mtitimila, E.I., Kamanga, H.S., Walsh, A.L., Hart, C.A., Molyneux, M.E. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Construction of a transcription map of a 300 kb region around the human G6PD locus by direct cDNA selection. Sedlacek, Z., Korn, B., Konecki, D.S., Siebenhaar, R., Coy, J.F., Kioschis, P., Poustka, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Serum hepatitis C virus RNA quantity and histological features of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal ALT levels. Naito, M., Hayashi, N., Hagiwara, H., Hiramatsu, N., Kasahara, A., Fusamoto, H., Kamada, T. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical and histological outcome after hepatitis B e antigen to antibody seroconversion in children with chronic hepatitis B. Ruiz-Moreno, M., Otero, M., Millán, A., Castillo, I., Cabrerizo, M., Jiménez, F.J., Oliva, H., Ramon y Cajal, S., Carreño, V. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. High-frequency representation of a single VH gene in the expressed human B cell repertoire. Stewart, A.K., Huang, C., Stollar, B.D., Schwartz, R.S. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Diagnosis of Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome in familial dementia with prion protein gene analysis. Collinge, J., Harding, A.E., Owen, F., Poulter, M., Lofthouse, R., Boughey, A.M., Shah, T., Crow, T.J. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Association between the tryptophan hydroxylase gene and manic-depressive illness. Bellivier, F., Leboyer, M., Courtet, P., Buresi, C., Beaufils, B., Samolyk, D., Allilaire, J.F., Feingold, J., Mallet, J., Malafosse, A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Monitoring of residual disease in chronic myelogenous leukemia by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and clinical decision making. Lion, T. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
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  11. Molecular mechanism of class switch recombination: linkage with somatic hypermutation. Honjo, T., Kinoshita, K., Muramatsu, M. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Wanderings of a DNA enzymologist: from DNA polymerase to viral latency. Lehman, I.R. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA polymerase gamma, the mitochondrial replicase. Kaguni, L.S. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The RNA polymerase II elongation complex. Shilatifard, A., Conaway, R.C., Conaway, J.W. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Mutation in region III of the DNA polymerase gene conferring foscarnet resistance in cytomegalovirus isolates from 3 subjects receiving prolonged antiviral therapy. Chou, S., Marousek, G., Parenti, D.M., Gordon, S.M., LaVoy, A.G., Ross, J.G., Miner, R.C., Drew, W.L. J. Infect. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Mutation of the androgen-receptor gene in metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. Taplin, M.E., Bubley, G.J., Shuster, T.D., Frantz, M.E., Spooner, A.E., Ogata, G.K., Keer, H.N., Balk, S.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The broad-spectrum antiviral ribonucleoside ribavirin is an RNA virus mutagen. Crotty, S., Maag, D., Arnold, J.J., Zhong, W., Lau, J.Y., Hong, Z., Andino, R., Cameron, C.E. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Multiple mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confer high-level resistance to zidovudine (AZT). Larder, B.A., Kemp, S.D. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of HIV-1 DNA and messenger RNA in individual cells by PCR-driven in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Patterson, B.K., Till, M., Otto, P., Goolsby, C., Furtado, M.R., McBride, L.J., Wolinsky, S.M. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. 14-3-3sigma methylation in pretreatment serum circulating DNA of cisplatin-plus-gemcitabine-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients predicts survival: The Spanish Lung Cancer Group. Ramirez, J.L., Rosell, R., Taron, M., Sanchez-Ronco, M., Alberola, V., de Las Peñas, R., Sanchez, J.M., Moran, T., Camps, C., Massuti, B., Sanchez, J.J., Salazar, F., Catot, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Relationship of the genomic complexity of hepatitis C virus with liver disease severity and response to interferon in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection [correction of interferon]. López-Labrador, F.X., Ampurdanès, S., Giménez-Barcons, M., Guilera, M., Costa, J., Jiménez de Anta, M.T., Sánchez-Tapias, J.M., Rodés, J., Sáiz, J.C. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Mild and moderate asthma is associated with airway goblet cell hyperplasia and abnormalities in mucin gene expression. Ordoñez, C.L., Khashayar, R., Wong, H.H., Ferrando, R., Wu, R., Hyde, D.M., Hotchkiss, J.A., Zhang, Y., Novikov, A., Dolganov, G., Fahy, J.V. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Efficient muscle-specific transgene expression after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in mice using a 1.35 kb muscle creatine kinase promoter/enhancer. Larochelle, N., Lochmüller, H., Zhao, J., Jani, A., Hallauer, P., Hastings, K.E., Massie, B., Prescott, S., Petrof, B.J., Karpati, G., Nalbantoglu, J. Gene Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Synergistic effect of stromelysin-1 (matrix metallo-proteinase-3) promoter 5A/6A polymorphism with smoking on the onset of young acute myocardial infarction. Liu, P.Y., Chen, J.H., Li, Y.H., Wu, H.L., Shi, G.Y. Thromb. Haemost. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Investigation of CGRP receptors and peptide pharmacology in human coronary arteries. Characterization with a nonpeptide antagonist. Hasbak, P., Saetrum Opgaard, O., Eskesen, K., Schifter, S., Arendrup, H., Longmore, J., Edvinsson, L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Existence of a beta3-adrenoceptro and its functional role in the human ureter. Park, Y.C., Tomiyama, Y., Hayakawa, K., Akahane, M., Ajisawa, Y., Miyatake, R., Kiwamoto, H., Sugiyama, T., Kurita, T. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Dynamic O-linked glycosylation of nuclear and cytoskeletal proteins. Hart, G.W. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. A novel form of tissue-specific RNA processing produces apolipoprotein-B48 in intestine. Powell, L.M., Wallis, S.C., Pease, R.J., Edwards, Y.H., Knott, T.J., Scott, J. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Evidence of limited variability of antigen receptors on intrathyroidal T cells in autoimmune thyroid disease. Davies, T.F., Martin, A., Concepcion, E.S., Graves, P., Cohen, L., Ben-Nun, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Purification and properties of the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase induced by vaccinia virus. Challberg, M.D., Englund, P.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. The MICA region determines the first modifier locus in familial Mediterranean fever. Touitou, I., Picot, M.C., Domingo, C., Notarnicola, C., Cattan, D., Demaille, J., Koné-Paut, I. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Detection of Herpes simplex virus DNA by real-time PCR. Kessler, H.H., Mühlbauer, G., Rinner, B., Stelzl, E., Berger, A., Dörr, H.W., Santner, B., Marth, E., Rabenau, H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation in patients with retinal artery occlusion. Weger, M., Stanger, O., Deutschmann, H., Leitner, F.J., Renner, W., Schmut, O., Semmelrock, J., Haas, A. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Recognition of RNA polymerase II and transcription bubbles by XPG, CSB, and TFIIH: insights for transcription-coupled repair and Cockayne Syndrome. Sarker, A.H., Tsutakawa, S.E., Kostek, S., Ng, C., Shin, D.S., Peris, M., Campeau, E., Tainer, J.A., Nogales, E., Cooper, P.K. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. NF-kappaB p50 promotes HIV latency through HDAC recruitment and repression of transcriptional initiation. Williams, S.A., Chen, L.F., Kwon, H., Ruiz-Jarabo, C.M., Verdin, E., Greene, W.C. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Functional interaction between the Werner Syndrome protein and DNA polymerase delta. Kamath-Loeb, A.S., Johansson, E., Burgers, P.M., Loeb, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. The TFIIIC90 subunit of TFIIIC interacts with multiple components of the RNA polymerase III machinery and contains a histone-specific acetyltransferase activity. Hsieh, Y.J., Kundu, T.K., Wang, Z., Kovelman, R., Roeder, R.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the 40-kDa subunit of activator 1 (replication factor C) of HeLa cells. Chen, M., Pan, Z.Q., Hurwitz, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Spt5 cooperates with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat by preventing premature RNA release at terminator sequences. Bourgeois, C.F., Kim, Y.K., Churcher, M.J., West, M.J., Karn, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. The Cdk9 and cyclin T subunits of TAK/P-TEFb localize to splicing factor-rich nuclear speckle regions. Herrmann, C.H., Mancini, M.A. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal repeat domain in RNA polymerase II by cyclin-dependent kinases is sufficient to inhibit transcription. Gebara, M.M., Sayre, M.H., Corden, J.L. J. Cell. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  42. Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular cofactors and Tat. Wu-Baer, F., Sigman, D., Gaynor, R.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  43. NoRC--a novel member of mammalian ISWI-containing chromatin remodeling machines. Strohner, R., Nemeth, A., Jansa, P., Hofmann-Rohrer, U., Santoro, R., Längst, G., Grummt, I. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  44. Human Nopp140, which interacts with RNA polymerase I: implications for rRNA gene transcription and nucleolar structural organization. Chen, H.K., Pai, C.Y., Huang, J.Y., Yeh, N.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  45. Identification and cloning of a novel family of coiled-coil domain proteins that interact with O-GlcNAc transferase. Iyer, S.P., Akimoto, Y., Hart, G.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  46. Nuclear myosin VI enhances RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription. Vreugde, S., Ferrai, C., Miluzio, A., Hauben, E., Marchisio, P.C., Crippa, M.P., Bussi, M., Biffo, S. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  47. CHD6 is a DNA-dependent ATPase and localizes at nuclear sites of mRNA synthesis. Lutz, T., St??ger, R., Nieto, A. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  48. Expression and physicochemical characterization of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Zhang, P., Zhang, S.J., Zhang, Z., Woessner, J.F., Lee, M.Y. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  49. Identification of somatostatin receptor subtypes and an implication for the efficacy of somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in treatment of human endocrine tumors. Kubota, A., Yamada, Y., Kagimoto, S., Shimatsu, A., Imamura, M., Tsuda, K., Imura, H., Seino, S., Seino, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  50. Transcriptional activation domains stimulate initiation and elongation at different times and via different residues. Brown, S.A., Weirich, C.S., Newton, E.M., Kingston, R.E. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  51. Common variant in AMPD1 gene predicts improved clinical outcome in patients with heart failure. Loh, E., Rebbeck, T.R., Mahoney, P.D., DeNofrio, D., Swain, J.L., Holmes, E.W. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  52. A functional screen in human cells identifies UBF2 as an RNA polymerase II transcription factor that enhances the beta-catenin signaling pathway. Grueneberg, D.A., Pablo, L., Hu, K.Q., August, P., Weng, Z., Papkoff, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  53. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphisms associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus carriers. Zhai, Y., Zhou, G., Deng, G., Xie, W., Dong, X., Zhang, X., Yu, L., Yang, H., Yuan, X., Zhang, H., Zhi, L., Yao, Z., Shen, Y., Qiang, B., He, F. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  54. Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with chronic heart failure. Gielen, S., Adams, V., Möbius-Winkler, S., Linke, A., Erbs, S., Yu, J., Kempf, W., Schubert, A., Schuler, G., Hambrecht, R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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