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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Translational regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E links protein synthesis to the control of DNA replication.

Ribonucleotide reductase synthesizes dNDPs, a specific and limiting step in DNA synthesis, and can participate in neoplastic transformation when overexpressed. The small subunit (ribonucleotide reductase 2 (RNR2)) was cloned as a major product in a subtraction library from eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-transformed cells (Chinese hamster ovary-4E (CHO-4E)). CHO-4E cells have 20-40-fold elevated RNR2 protein, reflecting an increased distribution of RNR2 mRNA to the heavy polysomes. CHO-4E cells display an altered cell cycle with shortened S phase, similar to cells selected for RNR2 overexpression with hydroxyurea. The function of ribonucleotide reductase as a checkpoint component of S progression was studied in yeast in which elevated eIF4E rescued S-arrested rnr2-68(ts) cells, by increasing recruitment of its mRNA to polysomes. Crosses between rnr2-68(ts) and mutant eIF4E (cdc33-1(ts)) engendered conditional synthetic lethality, with extreme sensitivity to hydroxyurea and the microtubule depolymerizing agent, benomyl. The double mutant (cdc33-1 rnr2-68) also identified a unique terminal phenotype, arrested with small bud and a randomly distributed single nucleus, which is distinct from those of both parental single mutants. This phenotype defines eIF4E and RNR2 as determinants in an important cell cycle checkpoint, in early/mid-S phase. These results also provide a link between protein and DNA synthesis and provide an explanation for cell cycle alterations induced by elevated eIF4E.[1]


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