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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Continuous facial myokymia in multiple sclerosis: treatment with botulinum toxin.

Continuous facial myokymia (CFM) is an involuntary undulating, vermicular movement that spreads across facial muscles and is associated with a characteristic electromyographic pattern. It is an infrequent clinical sign that almost always occurs in intrinsic brainstem lesions, particularly in multiple sclerosis ( MS). It is usually present for only a few weeks, but it may persist for long periods of time being very troublesome for patients. We report 2 cases with MS and continuous hemifacial myokymia persisting for up to 1 month which disappeared after injection of botulinum toxin. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) has been used successfully to treat a variety of focal dystonias and occasionally in orbicularis myokymia, but its use has not been reported in continuous hemifacial myokymia. BTX-A appears to be effective and safe for treating persistent facial myokymia in MS patients.[1]


  1. Continuous facial myokymia in multiple sclerosis: treatment with botulinum toxin. Sedano, M.J., Trejo, J.M., Macarrón, J.L., Polo, J.M., Berciano, J., Calleja, J. Eur. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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